EH midterm chapters 1 and 2

The                 is the portion of earth where life occurs


Most organisms exist b/t              ft above sea level and                 feet below sea level



20,000   6,000

The                            is the deepest part of the world’s oceans and it is located in the;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ocean.


What are the top 5 deepest oceans in the world starting with the deepest?


Marianas trench; pacific


Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Southern and Arctic

A(n);;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; is defined by living and non-living organisms interacting to process energy and cycle materials. It uses basic functional units and there is no defining size limitations (eg, the earth or a discarded tire with water in it).

A natural grouping of different plants and animals;within a given habitat;is defined as



Same species living together within a given area is defined as a(n);;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; .

biotic community




Discuss orcas and otters
Overfishing reduced the # of herring. When the herring went missing, so did the harbor seals ; sea lions. When the harbor seals and sea lions went missing, the orcas had to look for something else to eat: otters.;Otters are very small, ; the orcas had to eat a bunch of them. This decimated the otter population.

Explain the community concept

It is one of the most important ecological concepts. It emphasizes that different organisms;dwell together in an orderly manner. By illuminating the importance of a community as a whole, the community concept can be used by humans to manage a particular organism in the sense of increasing or decreasing its numbers. An example is the orcas and otters.

A species that is brought from someplace else that has no natural predator in its new home is called

a(n);;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; species. What were the 2 examples he gave?

invasive; ;kudzu ;;dandelions

(dandelions were brought from Europe to be eaten like lettuce)

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; are the organisms that have a major modifying influence on the community. They usually control the flow of energy through the environment.
ecological dominants
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;are usually the ecological dominant. Give 2 reasons why this is true.

Plants are usually the ecological dominant;b/c

1) They provide food and shelter.; 2) They affect and modify their physical environment (they make topsoil, moderate temps, etc)

; As a general rule, the number of dominant species within a community;increases/decreases;as one moves toward the poles and increases/decreases; as one moves towards the equator.


Dominant species are greater/fewer in areas of extreme climate

decreases; increases



Which pole has polar bears?
North pole

Species composition of a biotic community is profoundly affected by the physical characteristics of the environment, especially;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; and;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; .


Terrestrial communities have beed divided into general groupings called;;;;;;;;;;;;; .

Temperature and rainfall



Usually the key characteristic of a biome is the dominant type of;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; .

The following are characteristics of what biome?

The temps are very low at night and very high during the day. The plants and animals are characterized by species that are drought tolerant. The animals are active at night, remaining under cover during the day.


What is the max amount of rain a biome can have;annually to be considered a desert?


What other biome did we learn was a desert? How many inches of rain does it get annually?


Do deserts have proportionally more or less annual plants than other biomes?



The tundra receives 8;/yr



What biome has the following characteristics?

Permafrost and lots of big mosquitoes.


What biome;has lots of lakes and covers much of Canada, Scandinavia ; Russia? What is this biomes dominant vegetation?


Conifer trees including spruce, firs, hemlock and pines.

What biome has a milder climate and more rainfall than the taiga?


T or F: Tropical Rain Forest soils are exceedingly thin and nutrient poor.


In which climate are carnivores such as;coyotes ; lions (rodents and;many species of reptile);abundant?

Temperate Deciduous Forest





What biome has high temps and an annual rainfall of ; 100;?


Which biome is where Western, Chinese ; Japanese civilizations developed?


What biome has a high evaporation rate and ;insufficient rainfall to sustain the growth of trees?



Tropical Rain Forest


Temperate Deciduous Forest



Which biome has the highest concentration of organic matter in the soil?


;Which biome is being destroyed faster than any other due to human population growth and governmental actions?


Maples, Oak, Beech and Hickory trees are common in what biome?





Tropical Rain Forest;


Temperate Deciduous Forest

What are the 4 layers of plant growth in the tropical rain forest?

1) Top canopy at 200′

2) Lower canopy at 100′

3) sparse understory

4) ground level

What biome is Oklahoma?


What biome has the highest number of species on the planet, but the number in each species is limited?






Tropical Rain Forest

Why do deserts have high daytime temps and low nighttime temps?


The ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; rate tells us we lose 6;degrees Celsius per 1000 meters.

B/c there is no organic matter to hold moisture in the sand.


Adiabatic lapse

W/in any biotic community, each species is defined by its own unique position or;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; , different from that of any other member of the community.


The;;;;;;;;;;;;;; of;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; says that when 2 species are competing for the same limited resources, only one will survive.

Ecological niche


The ;Principles of Competitive Exclusion;

A(n);;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; is usually defined by its size and food habits


What medication did he mention that is used for head lice?

Ecological niche


Quell lotion

;;;;;;;;;;;;; of;;;;;;;;;;;;;; allow cohabiting species to overcome the principles of competitive exclusion.; What 2 examples did he give?

Partitioning of Resources;


Example 1: Head lice aren’t found in the pubic region and crab lice aren’t found in the head region.


Example 2: Certain species may come to the watering hole at different times of the day.

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; are environmental factors that limit or control where an organism can live.;

Limiting factors

What are the 4 examples of limiting factors?


Organisms that are widely distributed will have a high/low (choose);tolerance for these factors.

Temperature, Oxygen, Minerals, Water



Different stages of a life cycle exhibit different tolerances.; What 2 examples did he share to explain this?

Example 1: If thalidomide would have been taken before or after organogenesis, there would not;have been any birth defects.


Example 2: acid rain is deadly to roe, but not to adult fish.

The adiabatic lapse rate tells us we lose;;;;;;;;; (how many?) degrees Celsius per 1000;;;;;;;;;;;; (what units?).

6 degrees Celsius per 1000 meters


;This could be asked on a test: if you took off at 700F,; ; you went up 36,000 feet, what is the temperature?


What is the ultimate source of life and energy?
The sun

What does the first law of thermodynamics say?


The second law?

Energy can neither be created or destroyed.


W/ every energy transformation, there is a loss of usable energy (it’s the available energy, not the total energy that decreases).

               energy accomplishes work

              energy is absorbed and converted

               energy is converted to wind currents

                energy can be converted to kinetic energy.





                 states that all energy is moving toward an ever less available and more dispersed state.


Which law of thermodynamics has implications towards ecologic relationships?


Choose:  There will always, never, sometimes be a significant loss of usable energy whenever energy is transferred from one organism to another.



The second law



Energy moves one way through ecosystems becoming more dispersed and eventually degraded to                .

What is Klinkenbeard’s job?


What did he get his degree in?

Industrial hygienist


mycology (he went on a black mold tangent: very few species of mold are black mold, and the ones that are black mold are not going to cause a problem unless you have a weak immune system)

A transfer of food energy through a given source through a series of food organisms defines

a(n);;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; .

food chain


;;;;;;;;;;;;;; convert the sun’s energy into food energy. Give examples.

                consume producers. Give examples.

                are essential to recycle detritus back into the soil where it will once again be available for use by plants, algae, etc. Give examples.

Producers; plants and algae


Consumers; carnivores & herbivores


Decomposers; bacteria and fungi

Another tangent:

Long ago, there was an ice age. Did we have to go through global warming to get out of the ice age? Many scientists believe we have come out of 9 ice ages.  In the last 5 yrs, OKC temps have dropped 1.1 degrees.

Some believe carbon monoxide in ice cores tell us there is global warming.

He went on a 5 minute tangent at about the 1:35:00 mark on the first day of class. I don’t feel like typing that much stuff.

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;food chains (predator chains) start with a plant base and proceeds from smaller to larger animals.

;;;;;;;;;;;;;; food chains;are where;dead organic matter is broken down by microbes;which are consumed by small animals that derive energy from bacteria.

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; food chains are where energy flows from larger to smaller animals (dogs to fleas to protozoans).




How do ecological pyramids work?
Energy passes from producers to primary consumers to secondary consumers and so on. Each stage is called a trophic level. Placement into a trophic level does not depend on species; rather, it depends on factors such as age or sex (ie, male and female mosquitos).

At the bottom of an ecological pyramid are the;;;;;;;;;;;;;;(more, biomass).; In the middle, are the;;;;;;;;;;;;; . At the top, are the;;;;;;;;;;;;; (fewer, larger).


primary consumers

;final consumers

;At each transfer of energy within a food chain approximately;;;;; % of the chemical energy stored in organisms of the lower level is lost and therefore unavailable to the higher level.


For example, 10,000; lbs of corn;–>               #s of beef 

–>             #s of human


10,000 –> 1,000 –> 100

So, by moving humans one step closer in the food chain, 10X more energy becomes directly available.

Organisms need a number of inorganic materials in addition to energy. The cycling of earth’s materials through living systems and back to the earth is called                                   .  40 elements that are considered essential are called                 .

biogeochemical cycling


What are the macronutrients?


What are the trace elements?

S, P, O, N, C, H, Ca, Mg, K


I, Fe, Cl, Cu, Zn

What are the 2 types of biogeochemical cycling?
Gaseous cycling and sedementary cycling
 What are the 2 types of the gaseous cycle?
carbon and nitrogen cycle
The completion of the carbon cycle is accomplished by breaking down of organic molecules to inorganic carbon dioxide by what 4 ways?

1) Respiration

2) Decay of dead organisms

3) natural weathering of limestone

4) combustion of organic fuels (coal, oil, gas, wood)

What are the 2 basic sources of nitrogen?

1) Free nitrogen gas in the atmosphere

2) Nitrogen stored in rock forming mineral

Atmospheric nitrogen is inert and cannot be used by most plants. What are the 2 ways it can be converted to an accessible form for plants? Which way is most significant?

1) Lightning converts nitrogen to nitrogen oxide. Nitrogen oxide dissolves in the soil and bacteria convert it to nitrates. Plants can take up nitrates.

2) Fixation of atmospheric nitrogen is the most significant way. Nitrogenous wastes (dead organisms, feces) are decomposed to ammonia, then converted to nitrates that may be taken up by plants are converted back to free nitrogen gas.

What species is important for nitrogen fixation?
The Rhizobium sp.

                              is defined as component communities of an ecosystem changing in an orderly sequence within a given area


                     is “the gradual replacement of one biotic community by another over time”

ecological succession



He went over slides 51 – 56 really fast and said there would probably be a simple question about it.

That’s all

 The maximum growth rate that a population could achieve in an unlimited environment is referred to as that population’s                         . It  never happens due to “limiting factors”: food shortage, overcrowding, disease predation, and accumulation of toxic wastes.


 The environmental pressures that limit a population’s capacity for growth is called                               

biotic potential


environmental resistance


Populations exhibit characteristic patterns of increase known as what? What are the 2 examples?

Population growth forms

S curve and J curve

Define the S curve. Be sure to give an example.
In the S curve, birth and death are brought into balance, or you could say there is an equilibrium b/t biotic potential and environmental resistance. There is an upper asymptotic relationship, b/c the # of organisms approaches capacity but never reaches it. The upper asymptote is known as the "carrying capacity". The paramecium (protozoa) is an example.

Define the J curve. Be sure to give an example.


He said he may ask you to draw an S or J curve. It will not copy and paste from his notes for some reason. It’s slide 61 from ch 1 & 2 notes. Be sure to notice that when you draw your curve, you don’t start on the line. You don’t start out with zero organisms.

In the J curve, the exponential growth exceeds the carrying capacity and frequently results in population crashes.  Snowshoe hares are an example.



What’s the guys name that proposed if we continue on like we’re going, we’ll eventually use up all of our resources (J-curve)?


                           are self-regulating factors to control population.

Malthus said population would outpace agriculture


homeostatic controls

How is the growth rate defined?
It’s the difference in the birth rate and the death rate.

A tangent: He said everyone should have a CIA fact book. It will tell you anything about any country you want to know about.

That’s all
What countries have the top 3 populations in the world?

1) China

2) India

3) USA

What country has the highest birth rate?
Niger has the highest birth rate at 54/1000.
Why do economically underdeveloped countries have higher birth rates?
B/c their children are essentially their social securtiy. They hope for boys, b/c the girls marry into another family.
What are the 3 major factors that led to a population explosion?

1) Public sanitation

2) Advances in agriculture (being able to grow ur own crop rather than being a hunter and gatherer)

3) Control over infectious diseases

What was responsible for transmitting the bubonic plague? What is a bubo?

Bacteria from fleas on rats

A large black lymphnode

What is a demographic transition?


What is an incomplete demographic transition?

The falling of both birth and death rates.


Moving from high births and high deaths to high births and low deaths.

What ages are considered economically productive?


 A high percentage of the population under the age of      is indicative of explosive growth potential of a population




The sun is the ultimate source of             and              .
life and energy

T or F: An ecosystem does not use basic functional units


T or F:  An ecosystem has no defining size limitations




What 3 countries does the Taiga cover?
Scandinavia, Russia and Canada

Why don’t the grasslands have many trees?


What are the common trees found in the temperate deciduous forest?

They have a high evaporation rate and insufficient rainfall


Maple, Oak, Beech, and Hickory

An ecological niche is usually defined by               and             ?
size and food habits
The partitioning of resources allow a species to overcome what?
The principles of competitive exclusion
Decomposers, such as              and            , are important for recycling              back into the soil where it will be available for plants, algae, etc.
bacteria; fungi; detritus
What is a stage in an ecological pyramid called?
Trophic level