EH midterm chapters 3 and 4

One approach to halt human population growth is to reduce the birth rate and attempt to achieve                    .
zero population growth
 A tangent story: In one of his classes, Klinkenbeard had a Chinese lady disagree with him that China had a one-child policy.  She had family in China that had multiple children. It turned out that she didn’t know about the one-child policy, b/c she was an olympian and the rules didn’t apply to her.

One of the oldest means of contraception is               . This method has the highest failure rate of all methods. It is the most common form of birth control in Turkey. There is a law that says you can’t mail;;;;;;;;;;; .;;;
Maternal and child health are related to what 3 factors?;At what age does the ability to conceive peak?;T or F: There are more risks with pregnancy than with contraception
Age of the mother, Interval b/t births, ;Total # of births;31 y/o;False
What is maternal depletion syndrome? What causes it?
;Short birth intervals;can cause ;Maternal Depletion Syndrome; consisting of premature aging, weakness, and anemia. It has been observed among undernourished mothers in poor societies where teenage marriage is followed by 20 years of uninterrupted pregnancy
Generally a woman;s;;;;;;;; and;;;;;; ;births are the safest as the;;;;;; ;birth will usually reveal any physical or genetic abnormalities in the parents.

W/ the;;;;;;;; birth, the risk of maternal death, stillbirth, and infant death begins to rise.

2nd, 3rd, 1st, 4th
What are the 5 categories of contraceptive methods?
Hormonal methodsIntrauterine devicesSurgical sterilizationBarrier methodsOther methods
What hormone(s) does ;the pill; contain? How does the pill work?
estrogen and progestin;It blocks the release of the egg from the ovaries.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; is a birth control used to treat acne.
ortho tricyclin
What hormone(s) does the ;mini pill; contain? How does it work?
progestin;It thickens the cervical mucus to prevent the sperm from reaching the egg.
What is the name of the contraceptive that is a rod that is placed under the skin? How does it work? Of the 5 methods, what method of contraception is this?
Norplant releases a small, steady amount of steroid that prevents pregnancy for up to 5 yrs. Hormonal contraception
What is the name of the monthly injection that is given to prevent pregnancy? Of the 5 methods of contraception, what method is this?
Lunelle is a hormonal injection.
What hormone(s) are men in Sydney, Australia being given for birth control?
What hormone(s) does the patch, Ortho Evra,;contain?;What hormone(s) does NuvaRing contain?;Plan B must be taken w/in ;;;;; hrs of having unprotected sex.

progestin and estrogen;progesting and estrogen;72
The male condom, female condom, sponge, spermicides, diaphragm ; cervical cap are examples of what category of contraceptives?
barrier methods
Which barrier method is a foam, cream, jelly, film, or suppository and contains nonoxynol-9?

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Which barrier method is a disk-shaped polyurethane device containing the spermicide nonoxynol-9?
;Which barrier method is a dome-shaped rubber disk with a flexible rim that covers the cervix?


;Which barrier method is a soft rubber cup with a round rim, which fits snugly around the cervix?
Cervical cap
; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;was an IUD used in the 1980;s that was killing a lot of women. ;Why should women who have multiple partners not use an IUD?
Dalkon shield;Having multiple partners makes them more susceptible to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
How many lbs of grain does it take to produce 1 lb of chicken?;How many lbs of grain does it take to produce 1 lb of beef?;How many lbs of grain does it take to produce 1 lb of Tilapia?;Currently,;;;;;; % of grain;is used for livestock feed
Why was using corn for ethanol a bad idea?
The price for corn nearly doubled when it started being used for gas production.

; As more corn was being used for gas, other countries were having a hard time stocking their store’s shelves with corn, b/c it was expensive.  Of course the grocery stores were also having to mark up their prices.

The food and agricultural organization (FAO) devised the basal metabolic rate (BMR). Define the BMR. 
It is the minimum amount of energy required to maintain the human body at rest. A BMR <1.2 is considered undernourished.

Right now, there are almost 7 billion people on the planet
nBrown University calculated the current world harvest would supply an adequate vegetarian diet for 6 Billion (that’s everyone).
nHow many people would a South American diet of 15 % animal products;support?
nHow many people would a North American/European diet of 30 % animal products support?

4 billion;2 billion;This is why using corn for ethanol was a bad idea.
A tangent: Define a 1st, 2nd, and 3rd world country
WWII was the axis vs the allies. The allies won. The allies formed the world bank. A 1st world country competed w/ the allies and had an industrial infrastructure.

; A 2nd world country competed w/ the allies but didn’t have an industrial infrastructure. A 2nd world country could also be a country that competed w/ the axis and did have an industrial infrastructure. A 3rd world country did not side w/ the axis or allies, and they did not have an industrial infrastructure.


nAmong the poor and third world countries                is the #1 health problem and is the major factor for the wide gap in infant mortality rates between developed and less-developed countries

I just copied and pasted slides 80, 81, and 82, b/c it was hard to come up with questions for this material.
Health Impact of Hunger 

nIf a child receives less than 70% of the daily standard food requirement their activity and growth fall below normal levels
nIf deprivation of food is prolonged stunted physical development becomes irreversible
nSevere malnutrition in very young infants  result in permanent stunting of brain development
nLower # of brain cells, and alteration of brain chemistry
nAlso are unable to combat infections or environmental stress

nAt greatest risk are pregnant and lactating women, undernourished they run a higher risk of miscarriage, or premature delivery

                 is the largest contributor to high child mortality in 3rd world countries
What is Kwashiorkor?Who does it effect?What are the symptoms?
It is a protein deficiency that occurs when babies are weaned early and only given rice, cassava, and bananas to eat. The hair and skin become discolored; the growth is stunted; the abdomen protrudes; &, there is a loss of appetite. In severe cases, the child loses his/her hair, fluid builds up, and death may occur.

What is marasmus?When does it occur?What are the symptoms?How is it different than Kwashiorkor?
It is an overall protein-calorie deprivation that strikes babies under 1 yr who are no longer being breast fed. It often occurs after diarrhea or other diseases. The child will have a thin, wasted appearance w/ skin hanging loose and wrinkles around the wrists, legs, and eyes.  Marasmus is an overall protein-calorie deprivation. Kwashiorkor is just a protein deprivation; there are still enough calories.
What is xerophthalmia?
It is a vitamin A deficiency. It is the single most important cause of childhood blindness.

If the diet includes eggs, dairy products, and green leafy vegetables, there’s usually not a problem.

What are the 3 steps to combat vitamin A deficiency?

n1)Promotion of home gardening
n2)Mega-doses of Vitamin A in capsule form
n3)Fortifying sugar or MSG with Vitamin A
He says these things aren’t easy when you don’t know where your next meal is coming from.
A tangent: There are not many vitamin deficiencies in the US b/c many of our foods are fortified w/ vitamins.; When he was a kid, Wonder bread came out ; it was completely fortified.

Why do many women have iron-deficiency anemia in less-developed countries?;How do you combat iron deficiencies?
B/c they’re always pregnant and they eat last after the men and children.

 1) eat more red meat2) supply ferrous salt tablets to pregnant and lactating women.

What is a goiter?
It is an enlargement of the thyroid due to an iodine deficiency.
A(n)                              is the world’s single most important cause of preventable brain damage and mental retardation effecting 26 million worldwide.
iodine deficiency I think he’s trying to say that you can prevent brain damage and mental retardation by preventing an iodine deficiency.
Is tilapia salt water or fresh water?
Fresh water
What are the 2 main types of fish eaten in the US
catfish and crawfish
What are some ways that we could reduce world hunger?
1) Cultivate more land2) Increase world fish catch 3) Stop demanding cosmetically appealing foods.;(Retailing, food service, and consumption habits account for a loss of 95 billion pounds or 27% of all food available for consumption in the US).

4) Eat lower on the food chain. 5) Improve yields per acre with hybrid crop varieties, better farm machinery, fertilizers, biotechnology. A combination of all these factors have brought us to present production, but experts doubt that there will ever be a doubling of the present production rate;;;

What is the problem with giving food to poorer countries?
When they eat more, they reproduce more.
;Suppression of ovulation by;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; was the chief tactic employed by women to prevent a second pregnancy soon after childbirth until the advent of modern contraceptives
breast feeding

Mothers over 35 are more likely than younger women to bear a child with congenital disorders such as;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; .

Down’s Syndrome
In turkey, what is the most common form of birth control?
What syndrome (in the mother) is caused by short birth intervals?
Maternal depletion syndrome
                   is the single most important cause of childhood blindness
A lack of vitamin C causes                 A lack of thiamine/vitamin B1 causes                A lack of vitamin D causes               A lack of niacin causes              A lack of folic acid causes                
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