EMP 305

Underlying Issues/Positions happen because of 3 interdependent needs
1. procedural: people want to be treated fairly2. psychological: everyone needs to feel they were listened to and their ideas were respected in negotiation.

3.  substantive: every party wants to get something (fair treatment, money, resources)

Preventing unnecessary conflict (2-ways)
Attitude: critical factor in determining whether a relationship will flourish or go sour. via-willingness: put forth effort -openness: be open to others pov-respect: respect others-humility:don’t be so defensive-mutuality: treat others are colleaguesCommunication Skills: receiving + sending messages 
What method is used for dealing with angry people?
Mutual gains approach: acknowledge the concerns of the other side, encourage joint fact finding, act in a trustworthy fashion, accept responsibility, admit mistakes, share power, focus on maintaining long-term relationships.

What is conflict?
def: disagreement between 2 or more parties (directly involved) who perceive a threat to their needs/concerns/interests and are engaged in a conscious struggle with each other.
Types of Conflicts and what are they
1. interest based: has to do with people’s needs and goal’s and what’s important to hem2. structural: unequal access to resources, unequal power/authority, role definitions, time constraints, geographic relationships. disagreements over accountability/authority.3.

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data: problems related to info, lack of access, mis-information perceived.4. relationship: problems with parts of a relationship on one side, power imbalance, lack of trust, divergent priorities/expectations5. values: has to do with fundamental beliefs. religion, ideology, etc.

when 2 people’s values clash=conflict.

What is Environmental Conflict?
Def: At least 2 sides (human) actively engaged in a conscious struggle (w/ each other) PLUS 1 or more of the following:a. conflict waged over a natural resource (b/c it’s scarce) b.

conflicts when human activity (past, present, future) is believed by @ least 1 side to negatively affect a NR and thus affect human health/well-being.c. conflicts when standards & regulations imposed on human activity in order to protect NR 

Sources of Environmental Conflicts (4)
1. Limits to NR’s: tragedy of the commons2. Different lvl’s of knowledge of env.

issues and our dependence on NR’s and the environment. 3. Different values (global warming skeptics)4. Uncertainty of different env.

actions ; different assessment of risks associated with those actions. (ex: risk of unknow technologies or long term consequences)

Validation (and 3 ways)
def: acknowledging the other sides feelings, perspectives, truths and helping them feel understood. -repetition helps with this-1. paraphrasing: restating in your own words what speaker said, reflecting saying back the emotional aspect of what was said, ~match their emotion2. agreement stating: only if you agree, state your agreement with the speaker. 3. summarizing: restating large blocks of what speaker said in your own words.
Non-Verbal Components of Communication + Posture
7% meaning comes from content55% comes from non-verbal communication Posture: -Lean in/neutral/straight=interested-Lean back = dominant or disinterested -Turn body towards = open + confident -Quarter turn/crossing arms = disinterest/aggression (reduces ability to listen) -Eye contact: 60-70% shoudl be given-Nodding = endorphin like chems = feel better, friendlier toward person-Mirroring (tracking): subtly mimic others tone, choice of words, makes bonds.

Goal of “I-statements”
communicate clearly ; concisely your perceptions and feelings about a problem w/o eliciting a defensive response from the other side.  -what your interests are, keep comments focused on your own experience, use neutral language.  
Stakeholder
def: an individual or group with an investment the way the dispute ends and in the distribution of gains/losses that result from the resolution.

Issues
def: a matter or question in dispute. Topic or statement of a problem that results from perceived or actual incompatible interests.
Positions
def: the stand taken on an issue and a statement by a party as to how an issue can be resolved
interests
def: a specific need or concern that must be addressed for an agreement to be satisfactory. (the reasons why people have positions on thigns)
Federal Laws (4)
Administrative Procedures Act APA (1946): shows the fed. agencies creation/changing of regulations.1 provide notice they’re considering a rule2 publish proposed rule 3 allow public participation4 agency respond to public comments5 adopt final rule National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) 1970: requires all fed. agencies to:-asses env. impacts of all fed.

major projects-consider the env. impacts in making decisions -disclose env. impacts to public +EIS: env. impact statement:-needs an env. impact of proposed action-any unavoidable neg. env. impacts -provide alt’s to proposed actions-mitigation measures (ways to lessen impact) Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) 1966: law that allows citizens right to access information from the fed.

gov. Administrative Procedure Act (APA): law that shows internal procedures of administrative agencies + how they interact with the public, police improper agency behavior, and protect public safety.    

state laws
California Public Records Act 1968: public access to information in possession of public agencies. Brown Act: law that says meetings of public bodies must be “open and public”, actions cant be secret,action taken in violation of open meetings laws may be voided ;post notice and agendy, notify media, allow recording, allow public.
How to plan a public hearing
1. ID the purpose: public comment? research? trying to reach an agreement between the parties? 2. advertise meeting 3.

ID anticipated q’s/issues + answers4. prepare fact sheets, executive summaries, layman’s language no jargon 5. consider location + timing of meeting 6. come with open mind + listen 7. be respectful8. don’t talk down to people and don’t use jargon w/o explaining9. establish procedures to follow up with concrete action to address community’s concerns after the meeting.

Meetings of Legislative Bodies
def:anything w/ state/city/country governing body + standing committees (mems of pub+gov body), city council, community service etc.

purpose: 4 elected officials to make decisions.1. Call to order: people’s role call, flag solute, public comment period.2. Consent Calendar/Administration Agenda: list of all items to be decided on that chair/staff don’t think will be controversial & reccommended to be bundled together in one vote. purpose: save time, lump in one.

3. Public hearings: item a,b,c: if no one wants to talk about it – goes back to CC even if not originallly, already approved. 4. Oral & Written communication: Public comment period on non-agenda items5. Continued & New Buisness: item x,y,z.

things brought up in a pervious meeting or new topic.6. Staff/Commitee Reports: lengthy reports 7. Adjournment: end meeting. say when next one is

Other Government Meetings w/ Public Involvement
Informational meetings: educational forums, less formal, can ask questions, plan for action information for things like zoning, caltrains etc. Public Meetings: town hall meetings, scoping session PM held @ beginning of an idea and it’s issues+possible concerns about it. where public gives input.

Task Forces/Advisory Groups: lawyers, doctors, etc. in order to shape decision with public, not just open ended, research provided.