Clean Water Act of 1972

Federal funding for sewage treatment plants


Discharge must meet water quality standards for conventional Pollutants by installing BPT=Best practicalable control technology


Industry must use BAT = Best Available Technology to control toxic subtances


support to train personel that operate and maintain wastewater treatment facilities


authorizes states to clean point source pollution



Safe Drinking Water Act

remove contaminents from water to ensure the health of US citizens


EPA make sure states regulate within


Sets MCL = Maximum Contaminant Levels



National Pollutant Dischare Elimination System


All facilities that pollute with a Point Source must obtain a permit to discharge


POTWs-Publically Owned Treatment Works- primarily recieve sewage from residential and commercial customers

-sometimes discharge from industrial facilities

-Always include convential Pollutants and sometimes Toxic pollutants



Individual Permit – specifically tailored to one facility allowed to discharge what is listen on a permit for a specific time period


General Permit – Multiple Facilities within a Specific category such as point sources having common elements: typicallly do the same thing


Watershed Permit – covers all stressors in a drainage basin rather than addressing point sources

Major Components of a Permit

1. Cover Page – Name, Location, discharge location


2. Effluent Limits – Primary mechanism for controlling discharge


3. Monitor and Reporting Requirments -evaluate treatment efficiency and determine compliance with permit conditions


4. Special Conditions – Conditions to supplement effluent limit guidelines, BMPS


5. Standard Conditions – Conditions that apply to all permits and say the procedural requirments of the permit

Treatment benefits are not attributed to the entity bearing the costs
marginal cost
The marginal cost of a change is the additional cost caused by the change
marginal benefit
The marginal benefit of the change is the additional benefit caused by the change.

BMPs for Reducing N and P Surface Runoff


Mulching or ground cover

Balancing inputs with use

Incorporating Fertilizers into the soil

buffer strips


Proper Irigation