Entomology Test 3

What is the world’s most dangerous insect?
Mosquito
What are insects good for? (2 reasons)
PollinationRecycling (wheel of life)
Smallest, biggest, fastest?
WTF dong kim?
Insects are __% of all animals and __% of all species.
75, 50
What are their secrets to success? (3)
1. Adaptable Exoskeletons2. Small Body Size3. Short Generation time
Give one insect vector disease that affects humans? animals? plants?
Human-West NileAnimal- Heart wormPlant- Pierce’s diease
Name two ways the insects affect the environment.
1.

Break down organic materials2. Modify soil3. Make some areas unlivable4. Help/injure other elements of the ecosystem5. Key element of many food webs

Name four characteristics of arthropods.
1. Exoskeleton, must shed to grow2. Segmented3.

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Jointed Appendages4. Ventral Nerve Chord5. Open Circulatory System

Crustacea
Lobsters, crabs- NOT INSECTS
What do varroa mites and tracheal mites do?
kill bee colonies
Centipedes
one pair of legs per segmentone pair of large antennaenearly all predaceous & venomous
Millipedes
Two Pairs of Legs per segmentNo venomous bite; noxious chemical release
How can you tell if something is an insect?
3 body regions3 pairs of legscompound eyeswings (usually)one pair antennaetrachea
Order Odonata
DragonfliesChewing mouthpartsProlonged beak
Coleoptera: Family Lampyridae
Lightning Bugs, FirefliesProduce ‘cool’ light
Scorpion Fly (Order Mecoptera)
Head usually prolonged beak
Order: Diptera
FliesOne pair on wings on thoraxImportant pests and beneficial
Order Siphonaptera (Flea)
Carry plague and parasites
Flea Life Cycle
Adults NEVER leave animal hostEggs fall from animal, usually in resting areaLarvae usually feed on animal feces
Skippers (Family Hesperiidae)
Stouter (fat) bodyHooked antennae
Caterpillars (Lepidopteran Larvae)
Six true legs attached to thoraxusually six lateral stemmata
Order: Lepidoptera (Family: Danaidae)
Milkweed ButterfliesMonarch- feed on milkweed for protection
Monarch Migration
Spring: mate and fly northLay eggs on MilkweedSummer: several generationMigrates to Mexico, NONE RETURN
Order trichoptera (caddisfly)
Almost all aquatic as larvae lives underwater
Order Hymenoptera (ant, bee, wasp)
Four wings, hind smallerChewing mouthpartsFemales only stinging, work, defenseMany social as well as solitary species
Diploid
male-full complement of chromosomes, come from unfertilized eggs
Haploid
only chromosomes from the female parentcome from fertilized eggs
Family Formicidae- the ants
All are social insectsworkers, soldiers- all femaleMales live just long enough for mating
How are new ant colonies formed?
New queens lose wings and the males die.
Fire ants
invasivebite AND stingonly females can sting
Fire ant control
2 step programbaits twice per yearmound treatments for established colonies
Bees
only one queenDance to direct food sources(round/waggle dance)African Bees- same, but more aggressive
___ stings per pound of body weight is fatal
100
Insect Integument
made of chitin- sugar polymer for toughness and flexibilityresilin- elastic, can store energy (grasshoppers)
Molting or Ecdysis
only immatures moltinstars-period between moltEcdysone-molting hormone
Digestion/Excretion (three sections)
Stomodeum- Ingestion, digestionMesenteron- AbsorptionProctodeum- Excretion, regulation
Cellulose
Makes plants/woods harderAlso in insects:Bacteria- few BeetlesProtozoans-termites, roaches
Respiration
Relies very heavily on diffusionO2 enters through openings called spiracles (abdomen and thorax)
Circulation
does not move O2open systemblood called- hemolymphfacilitated by dorsal aorta
Central Nervous System
Neuron groups form gangliabrain and segmental ganglia
Thoratic ganglia
controls legs/wings
Protocerebrum
Vision, integration of multiple behaviors
Deutocerebrum
antennal inputs
Tritocerebrum
Connects to Stomatogastric sysem; integrates input from other brain lobes
Simple eye parts (vs compound eye)
Ocelli (no images, changes in light)and stemmata
About 1/2 of all insect species are ___________
phytophagous
What do insects hear with?
tympana
Insect Interactions
Mutualism (+/+)Commensalism (+/0)Predation/parasitism (+/-)Competition (-/-)
Beetles are _____&_______ pollinators.
important and early
What three things do attract pollinators?
1. Odors2. Colors3. Nectar
Advantages of wind pollination
not dependent on third partyno need to supply ‘reward’
Disadvantages of wind pollination
untargeteddecreased likelihood of out-crossingmuch larger production of pollen neededplants don’t disperse well
Advantages of insect pollination
Facilitates out-crossing, even if plants are dispersedHelps plants colonize new habitats more rapidlyreliable dispersal facilitated plant specialization (leads to diversity)
Disadvantages of insect pollination
3rd party involvedplant must produce reward
Nectar
rich in sugarsamino acids, proteins, and lipids
Nonedible pollinators rewards: Heat (2)
usually involves beetlesflowers metabolize lipids and starches
Nonedible pollinators reward: Insect Mimics (2)
flowers mimic prey (aphids attacked by wasps)Wasps,sawflies and ants are all decieved by some flowers
Non edible pollinator rewards: Other mimics (2)
Flowers mimic other flowers that offer rewardssmells like a dead animal attracts flies
What are the costs to the pollinator?
Energy and Risks
What are the costs to the plant?
Resources to produce reward, risks of being robbed, attraction of herbivores
Pollination patterns of beetles
usually associaed with dish/bowl flowers
Pollination patterns of Flies
associated with white, smelly flowers; variation
Pollination patterns of Butterflies
long tongue, deep in flower, sweet odors, bright colors, red(moth flowers-less color, more odor)
___ are the largest group of efficient pollinators
Bees
Name two bee adaptations for plant interactions
plumose hairsdiet of nectar and pollen
Name two plant adaptations for bees
colors in bees’ range of cvisionseparate petals
Butterfly life cycle
egg (few days)larva (few weeks)Pupa (variable)Adult (a few weeks)
How many described species of insects?
1 million
External phytophagous feeding patterns
consume foliage, fruit, and roots directlysuck plant juices
Mechanical Plant Defenses
spines/thornes- prevents large herbivores, not useful against insectsTrichomes-specialized epidermal cells may be straight spikes or hooks (deters feeding, slices insect cuticle)
Chemical Plant Defense
Alkaloids are very common (1/3, of plants have them (caffiene, morphine, nicotine)
What is it called when plants can withstand damage without compromising fitness?
tolerance
Sequestration
monarch butterflies hold chemical in special tissues or structures where it cannot interfere with metabolism, and make them have bad taste against predators
Most insect species feed only within_________ plant family(s).

one. (10% feed on more than 3)
What ways can insects transmit diseases?
Mechanical-disease agent comes in contavt with feet/mouth/etc. and is simply passed alongPlant- hemiptera, thysanoptera
___% of plant diseases are transmitted by insects.

100
Characteristics of Parasitoids
attack various hosts, but tend to be species specificMust find proper sites where hosts occurOften rely on volatile cuesMay use odor, sound, vibration
Charateristics of Parasites
Rare among insects (7 of 34 families)Kelptoparasites use resources of other speciesCuckoo bee lays eggs in other bee nestsSome flies steal from spidersSmoe spiders steal from spider
What determines carrying capacity? (biotic factors)
density dependentcompetition for food, shelter, matesnatural enemies
What determines carrying capacity? (abiotic factors)
density independentclimatetemperaturemoisturespace
Source-sink dynamics
colonization of a habitat is affected by 3 key factors-distance from source-size of new habitat-population size in sourceColonization is also affected by the dispersal ability of the organism
r-Strategists
high reproduction, low survivalhighly mobilecolonize unstable environmentsweak competitors
k-Strategists
reduced reproduction, high survivalvariable mobilitycolonize stable environmentsstrong competitors
Eusociality (3 characteristics)
1. comparitive brood care2. reproductive division of labor3. overlapping generations(predominately hymenoptera and ispotera)
Kin Selection Theory
the more genes you share with someone else, the greater the fitness you gain by working together to promote survival of shared genes
What order is kin selection theory most applicable? why?
hymenoptera; because they are arrhenotokus-females from fertilized eggs and males from unfertilized
Characteristics of Eusocial Life
all social insects have castes that are differntiated functionally and morphologically (workers, soldiers, drones/kings, queens)chemical communication is criticaltrail, alarm, death pheromones
Termite participation
males and females both participate in colony activity
What pesticide is responsible for saving the most human lives?
DDT
Pesticide is broad term including what 4 things?
herbicidesinsecticidesfungicidesrodenticides
DDT was a modern miracle
inventor won novel prizenontarget effects,all domestic use stopped in 1972
Rachel Carson
“sea around us” marine books to promote pesticide regulation
EPA
responsible for ensuring that pesticides do not pose ‘unreasonable’ risks to human health or the environment
Detection Limits
just because you can measure it does not make it dangerous. The converse is also true.

(1 or more pesticides were found 90% of the time in major streams)

NOEL
No Observable Effect Limit
Exceeding Aquatic-life Benchmarks
agriculture-57%urban-83%
what time of year are most pesticides used?
spring/summer
Endocrine Disruptors
hormones-chemical that control the body
What is happening to all kinds of amphibians?
declining
Are pesticides a Cause for honey bee declination?
USDA says there is no one factor, other possible causes include water quality, diseases, mites, combinations
Pesticide ingredients are on ________.
the label
Signal Words
Danger-extremely dangerous, skin eye irritantpoison- small amt fatalwarning-larger amounts to injure humanscaution-least dangerous
your risk from pesticide depends on the pesticides’__________ and your___________.
toxicity and exposure
Use sites
sites indicated in the label (only use there)
Use rates
do not exceeding labeling rates or frequency is often illegal
Don’ts of pesticides
dont ignore directionsdont allow children accessdont put in food containers
Can enough food be produced organically?
will it be cheap enough for everyone to afford? (population will double in 30-40 years)
FDA estimated that __% of fruits and veggies have no detectable residues
30
GMO
Genetically Modified Organisms- genetic materials are added through means other than traditional plant breeding
How often do people eat them?
every day, nearly all soy, corn and cotton is GMO
NOP rules
95%-100% organic-USDA seal may appear
Why do farmers use pesticides?
Labor substituteInstant resultsConsumer demands
How do you keep plants healthy?
proper soil, moisture, sun, etc.
How can you find out what to do?
Cooperative Extension & learn about planting
How do you avoid pest problems?
be careful when you work (avoid wounding, don’t eat wet plants)remove plant debris/diseased materialspreserve beneficials
How to help insects?
don’t kill them, use insecticides sparingly and be selective in which ones you use
What are they looking for?
prey, shelter, water, food (nectar, pollen)
Integrated Pest management
Monitoring (looking, traps) think about ecology (why, how) reduce need for pesticides
Common ‘organic’ pesticides
Spinosad- Bull’s eye (beetles, caterpillars, thrips, and flies)Soaps/oils sprayed on insectsbacillus thuringiensis- caterpillarsB. israelensis- mosquito dunks