ENV 101 – Exam 2

You are in an area that is relatively hot. You bend down and notice that there are tracks in the soil that are very old.

Since you know that this area is easily destroyed by human activity and the harsh climate slows recovery from human damage you conclude that this biome is

A desert
Morpheus, Trinity and Neo are on the wet western coast of North America and as they look around they see lots of mosses, lichens and ferns covering the tree branches. Condensation from fog on the leaves is a major form of precipitation. Where are they?
Temperate rainforest
Deciduous forests
Have trees that shed their leaves seasonally
Many people in the United States take trips in the spring to see annual flowers that grow and flower before they are shaded by canopy. Where are these people going?
Temperate deciduous forest
Boreal forests are generally
Slow-growing because of the cold temperatures
Morpheus has been led into a wilderness environment and left to fend for himself for the summer. Luckily, he has a good coat because it looks like there may be a frost during the night and the mosquitoes are everywhere.

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As he looks around, he is relieved because he recognizes some of the plants. There are some mosses, lichens, small shrubs, sedges and grasses. Which biome is he in?

Temperate rainforest
The biome type that has a short growing season and is summer feeding and breeding grounds for caribou and musk-ox is the
arctic tundra
Mangrove trees are found along ________________ shorelines
tropical saltwater
Which of the following protects mainland shores form the force of waves?
barrier islands
Freshwater ecosystems
include lakes, marshes, bogs and fens
Oxygen levels are lowest in what section in the diagram?
What aquatic ecosystem phenomenon is illustrated in the diagram?
vertical stratification
The thermocline is the layer in a lake at which
the warm upper zone meets the cold lower zone
Wetlands are biomes that
are wet at least some of the year
The biome type that has lost the greatest percentage of its original area due to human activities is the
temperate deciduous forest
Estuaries are noted by biologists because they have few, but highly specialized, biological niches.
Wetlands perform a major ecosystem service of trapping and filtering water as it passes through the wetland area.

Arctic deserts and tundra are the least disturbed by humans since they are usually unattractive places for humans to live.
An organism’s biotic potential is the maximum number of offspring
it actually produces over its lifetime
In the real world, many factors determine the numbers of organisms in any one population. Yet, a “superfly” with unlimited food and no mortality would show what type of growth?
exponential growth
In cases of exponential growth rates, a population ________ each year.
increases at the same rate
Which of the following sequences is an example of exponential growth rate?
all of these sequences are examples of geometric growth rate
A population growing at 1 percent per year should double in about ___ years.
The doubling time for a population with an annual growth rate of 0.07 is
50 years
Carrying capacity is the population
of a species that an environment can support on a long-term basis
In the real world, population explosion is usually followed by
a gradual decrease in population as food supplies dwindle
A dieback or population crash, often occurs after a species ________ its environmental carrying capacity.

An island has formed off the coast of the Pacific Northwest. The Department of Natural Resources (DNR) has determined that there is enough land area for a herd of 100 elk, yet they say the carrying capacity is only 60 elk. This inequality can best be explained by the fact that the
Physical factor of space is only one of the determiners for population size in a community
Logistic growth rates are those in which a population
Grows rapidly when conditions are good, then slows as it approaches carrying capacity
The ability to produce rapid population overshoots can be a useful strategy for a species that tends
colonize new territory
Which of the following types of population curves would best represent a group of elephants that enter a new, open habitat and become a stable part of that ecosystem?
s-shaped curve
You are studying an organism that is a pioneer species is an opportunist and does not care for its offspring. This organism probably has a _________________ population growth strategy.
You are studying an organism that is fairly large, matures slowly, lives fairly long and cares for its offspring.

This organism probably has a _________________ population growth strategy.

An organism with ___________ “strategies” would be considered to have __________ natality.
r-adapted;high and k-adapted;low
Natality is usually
variable, depending on environmental conditions
The term “fecundity” refers to an organism’s ____________ while fertility is ______________.
physical ability to reproduce; actual number of offspring produced
Life expectancy is the
number of years an individual of a certain age will probably live
Survivorship is determined by
percentage of a cohort that survives to a certain age
The longest period of life that a given type of organism can reach is known as
life span
If there is no migration, the size of a population is limited solely by interaction between
natality and mortality
Predation is considered to be a(n) _______________ factor.
extrinsic and biotic
Which of the following is an abiotic population control mechanism?
water shortages (?)
Which of the following is a biotic population control mechanism?
In general, abiotic regulatory factors tend to be ___________ while biotic factors tend to be _____________.
density-independent; density-dependent
Which of the following is an intraspecific interaction?
How does island biogeography apply to ecosystems other than islands?
habitat fragmentation has formed islands of habitat in “oceans” of development
Genetic diversity is lost in a small population when
only a few individuals survive a catstrophe
White-tailed deer populations are at about the same levels as they were a century ago.
What environmental factor does not change between “b” and “e” in the diagram?
All of these change between “b” and “e.”