# ENV 101 – Exam 4

 When Aldo Leopold said, “The first rule to intelligent tinkering is to save all the pieces.” in terms of biodiversity he meant that we should
 Not cause species to disappear
 We are usually referring to species diversity when we talk about biodiversity. However, genetic diversity is also important to ecological systems because diverse genes
 Are necessary for a population to evolve in a changing environment
 Use the scenario below to answer the following questions:
In this scenario, which community has the highest species richness?There are three ecological communities, each with differing species, but all of them have 100 individual plants and animals. Community A has 21 species. Of the 110 individuals, there are 50 individuals of one species and 3 each of the other 20 species. Community B has 11 species.

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Of the 110 individuals, there are 90 individuals of one species and 2 each of the other 10 species. Community C has 11 species. Of the 110 individuals, there are 10 individuals of each species.

 . Community A has 21 species. Of the 110 individuals, there are 50 individuals of one species and 3 each of the other 20 species.
 In this scenario, which communities have the same species richness? There are three ecological communities, each with differing species, but all of them have 100 individual plants and animals. Community A has 21 species. Of the 110 individuals, there are 50 individuals of one species and 3 each of the other 20 species. Community B has 11 species. Of the 110 individuals, there are 90 individuals of one species and 2 each of the other 10 species. Community C has 11 species. Of the 110 individuals, there are 10 individuals of each species.
 Community B and C. Community B has 11 species. Of the 110 individuals, there are 90 individuals of one species and 2 each of the other 10 species. Community C has 11 species. Of the 110 individuals, there are 10 individuals of each species.
 The common way that a species is defined in biology (the way it is defined in Chapter 3) is in terms of reproductive isolation. This means that all organisms that are similar enough to
 Produce fertile offspring in nature
 You also mentioned to your friend that a new tool, DNA sequencing technology is radically changing the way species are identified. In fact, some groups that were originally thought to be far apart now seem to be closely related. Which of the following statements does not reflect the implications of using this new tool?
 This tool will end the debate of what is or is not a species
 Approximately how many species have been identified on Earth?
 A little more than 1.5 million
 The total number of living species is probably
 Between 3 million and 50 million
 One of the reasons humans rely heavily on only a few food crops is because
 We have not explored the cultivation of thousands of edible wild species
 Which of the following drugs is not derived from a naturally occurring organism?
 Tetracycline
 Which of the following is not a benefit of biodiversity for humans?
 All of these are benefits of biodiversity
 The pharmaceutical industry has an interest in preventing species extinction because
 Undiscovered species may provide lucrative new drugs
 Soil formation and water purification are examples of _________ based on the biodiversity that benefit humans
 Ecological services
 Which of the following statements is true?
 Humans may have been causing extinctions thousands of years ago, but our impact has recently increased
 The main reason for the current high rate of animal extinctions is
 Habitat destruction worldwide
 Which of the following would be a characteristic of an exotic plant species?
 Is an opportunist that is desired by humans for food or ornamental value
 Habitat fragmentation usually leads to a(n)
 Decrease in biodiversity
 Introduced (exotic) species tend to __________ the balance of ecosystems and ______ biodiversity.
 Upset; decrease
 The zebra mussel was introduced to the Great Lakes
 Accidentally in ocean-going ship ballast
 Introduced disease organisms are especially dangerous to new environments because they can destroy the non-native host. This happens because the disease organisms
 Have not evolved with this host to achieve the normal balance for long-term success
 It is clear that a heavy dose of pesticides or other toxic pollutants can kill species. However, chronic exposure to pollutants seems to cause recent high mortality in marine mammals by
 Causing weakened immune systems and increased vulnerability to infection
 The U.S. Army participated in extermination of the American bison because
 Native peoples depended on the bison for food and shelter
 The main reason for continued trade in endangered species is
 Pet lovers and collectors who like exotic species
 Which of the following statements about trade in endangered species is false?
 Coral reefs are not affected by the endangered species trade
 Which of the following fish is safe and environmentally friendly to eat?
 Wild salmon
 If you have an aquarium with saltwater fish, 75 percent of your fish probably came from
 Wild fish populations caught with cyanide or nets
 A species in imminent danger of extinction is classified by the U.S. Endangered Species Act as
 Endangered
 The main reason that there are relatively few invertebrates categorized as endangered species is because
 We consider other groups, such as mammals, to be more interesting and desirable
 The objective of a species recovery plan is to
 Increase an endangered species population until it is no longer endangered
 The U. S. Endangered Species Act officially expired in
 1992
 Conservationists and wildlife managers use gap analysis to
 Find unprotected landscapes that are rich in species
 Which of the following is false regarding CITES?
 When implemented properly it has provided foolproof protections of endangered species
 Most of the tallgrass prairies in the U.S. remain untouched.
 False
 Kudzu vine was originally brought to the U.S. to control soil erosion.
 True
 Island ecosystems are extremely susceptible to invasive species
 True
 Zoo animals in the U. S. today come mainly from the wild.
 False
 “Closed canopy” forests are those in which tree crowns
 Cover most of the ground
 _________, ___________ and ___________ are the largest producers of both paper pulp and industrial wood
 Which of the following statements about old-growth forests is true?
 They include temperate rainforests, tropical rainforests, boreal forests and deciduous forests
 Developed countries produce __________ of all industrial wood and account for ________ of its consumption.
 Less than half; about 80 percent
 Fuelwood harvests
 Make up about half of all wood harvests
 Although most of the world’s forests are shrinking, biologists are especially concerned about tropical forest loss because
 They contain such high biodiversity
 Economically, monoculture forestry is advantageous because
 It produces large quantities of a single type of tree for a particular use, such as building timber or paper
 “Forest management” means planning for
 Sustainable harvests and forest regeneration
 After losing nearly all its trees in World War II, South Korea is now
 A disadvantage of monoculture forestry is that it is
 Deficient in providing ecological services
 Which nation currently has the highest deforestation rate?
 Bazil
 A promising approach to encourage conservation and preservation in developing countries is
 Debt-for-nature swaps
 Milpa farming is an alternative term for
 Mixed perennial polyculture
 Satyagraha movements in India work to achieve social and environmental goals
 Through passive, peaceful methods
 India’s Chipko Andolan movement
 Saved a large portion of forests in watersheds
 International lending institutions are willing to cooperate in debt-for-nature swaps because
 They do not really expect to recover much of their loans
 Debt-for-nature swaps are beneficial mainly to
 All of these are correct
 Of all the old growth forests that stood in the United States before European settlement, how much remains today?
 Less than 10 percent
 Economic studies show that the loss of logging jobs in Washington and Oregon resulted from *
 The decreased amount of logging that was ordered to save the spotted owls
 The profits from a year’s harvest of salmon in a British Columbia river
 Are negligible compared to timber values
 Most commercial loggers prefer “clear-cut” harvesting because it*
 Is the most efficient, cheapest harvest method using large, fast machinery instead of costly labor
 Why is there a need to reeducate people about the role of fire in natural systems?
 People do not understand that fire is a natural part of many biological ecosystems
 Which of the following perspectives is not a principle of ecosystem management?
 Using scientific knowledge as the basis for management since science is free from bias
 In criticizing ecosystem management, one of your classmates says that it is arrogant for us to think that we can manage nature. You respond that you think she probably has a(n) ______________ worldview.
 Biocentric
 What conclusions can you make from examining the graph?
 Ecosystem “a” has the most threatened plant species
 Given what you know about land use, what ecosystem do you think ecosystem “a” represents? *
 Wetland
 Places most susceptible to desertification are
 Open woodlands
 Most public rangelands are in poor condition due to
 Overcrowding of private livestock
 Grazing fees on public lands have changed little because
 Political pressures ensure they remain low
 Poor people in developing countries often threaten wildlife preserves because
 They need the resources to survive
 If managed carefully, ecotourism benefits natural areas by giving economic value to land and water resources
 Without destroying them
 One possible solution to the problem of insufficient land area for preserves is to use ____________ to link smaller habitat areas.
 Corridors
 Corridors have the potential to effectively enlarge which of the following?
 Preserve areas
 Which of the preserve shapes shown has the greatest interior area relative to perimeter area? *
 C. C (Circle)
 Which of the preserve shapes shown would support the most species that require a core area? *
 D
 The amount of interior area in a preserve is important because
 Humans and other hardy species encroach on preserve margins AND many threatened species cannot survive environmental conditions on preserve margins
 The Menominee tribe in Wisconsin manage their trees using shelterwood harvesting.
 True
 The majority of coastal wetland loss in the United States is due to
 Levees that guide the Mississippi River out into the Gulf of Mexico
 Efforts to repair or reconstruct ecosystems are known as
 Mitigation
 The word “mitigation” has come to mean to
 Restore or create an ecosystem in exchange for a similar damaged one
 ________________ uses chemical, physical or biological methods to remove pollution.
 Remediation
 Restoration draws on which of the following fields of science the most?
 Ecology
 Which of the following is not a main component of restoration of any ecosystem?
 Removal of indigenous peoples
 A pioneer in restoration ecology who planted as many as 6000 trees every year was
 Aldo Leopold
 The first wildlife refuge established in the United States was
 Pelican Island
 In the United States, most reforestation projects result in
 Monoculture forests
 The largest reforestation project in history is now taking place in
 China
 Some of the advantages of planting trees in cities include
 All of these are correct
 All of the following are things that can be done toward ecological restoration except
 Remove native species
 One of the reasons that it is difficult to restore an oak savanna is that
 There are no natural fires to control vegetation
 Protection of our forests relies on all of the following except *
 Cutting down the largest trees in fire-prone areas
 The majority of the mixed grass section of the Great Plains has been converted to
 Crop lands
 Wetlands control flooding by *
 Temporarily storing water
 Problems encountered in the Florida Everglades due to modification of the natural flow of water include
 Loss of 90 percent of wading bird populations in Everglades National Park and water shortages in many cities during the dry season
 Which of the following is false regarding Chesapeake Bay?
 Sturgeon populations have increased in recent years
 Stream restoration techniques include all of the following except
 Using small amounts of dynamite to unclog waterways
 Stabilizing banks is an important component of stream restoration. Which of the following is not a method of bank stabilization?
 Adding soil so that the slope is at least 45 degrees
 Radioactive materials have been successfully removed from the soil near the Chernobyl nuclear power plant using
 Sunflowers
 “Brown fields” is another name for
 Abandoned contaminated industrial sites
 The most influential American forester was Aldo Leopold.
 False
 In Vermont, most of the land is currently being used for sheep farming.
 False
 According to your instructor, which of the following statements would be most accurate regarding the role of environmental science?*
 understanding how nature works and how best to protect it
 As profiled in “When Good Lizards Go Bad,” the main habitat of Komodo dragons, the Komodo National Park, is in:
 Indonesia
 According to “When Good Lizards Go Bad,” locals often fed the Komodo dragons by tying to a post a sacrificial:
 goat
 As explained in “When Good Lizards Go Bad,” park rangers at the Komodo National Park routinely put down animals that develop a taste for human flesh.
 false
 As detailed in “Cry of the Wild,” the pre-eminent threat to some species in Asia and Africa is now:
 hunting
 As presented in “Cry of the Wild,” until recently, animals were killed mostly for:
 subsistence
 As maintained in “Cry of the Wild,” the population of hippos has declined substantially in the last decade because hippos are illegally hunted for meat and ivory.
 true
 As mentioned in “Ecosystems and Human Well-being,” the region in which the condition and management of ecosystem services is a dominant factor influencing prospects for reducing poverty is:
 sub-saharan africa
 As explained in “Ecosystems and Human Well-being,” 70 percent of water use worldwide is for:
 agriculture
 According to “Ecosystems and Human Well-being,” changes in ecosystems influence the abundance of human pathogens such as malaria and cholera as well as the risk of emergence of new diseases.
 true
 According to “The Geography of Ecosystem Services,” the value of ecosystem goods and services is largely tied to their:
 location
 As noted in “The Geography of Ecosystem Services,” the key to protecting and enhancing ecosystem services is:
 geographic analysis of biophysical production functions
 As stated in “The Geography of Ecosystem Services,” ecosystem-protection efforts can be dangerous if they cannot make credible claims about ecological cause and effect.
 The author of “Ecosystem Services,” uses three examples of ecosystem services to demonstrate their importance in our lives: flood and natural disaster protection services, water services, and:
 pollination services
 As demonstrated in “Ecosystem Services,” an example of an ecosystem that protects against coastal flooding and storms is:
 mangrove trees
 As given in “Ecosystem Services,” the human population of the world is expected to reach 12 billion by 2050.
 false
 As revealed in “Global Energy,” the two greatest consumers of energy in the world are the United States and:
 As reported in “Global Energy,” 50 years ago, Western utilities were preoccupied with the:
 annual double-digit growth of electricity demand
 As states in “Global Energy,” by 1974 the U.S. fuel efficiency for car fleets was lower than during the mid-1930’s
 true