ENV SCIENCES Quiz 3 FLASH

How much of the earth’s surface is covered by water?
71%
Fresh Water
Water with a salt content of less than .1%
STEPS OF THE WATER CYCLE?
EVAPORATION/TRANSPIRATION -THEN- Condensation -THEN- Precipitation.
Water Vapor
The result of evaporation/Water molecules in the gaseous state
Evaporation
The process of water molecules breaking apart from one another entirely and entering the atmosphere.
Condensation
Opposite of Evaporation. Thus: Water molecules come together again (Rejoin) by hydrogen bonding to form liquid water
Aerosols
Microscopic liquid or solid particles originating from land and water surfaces). Facilitate Condensation.
Either generated naturally (E.G. Volcanoes), Or Unnaturally (E.G. Anthropogenic sources-dust).
What processes perform Purification naturally?
Evaporation and Condensation
Adiabetic Cooling/Warming?
Warm air gradually cools as it expands.

Conversely the air can descend and will then compress by the higher air pressure in “the lower atmosphere”.

Hadley Cell
The 2 halves of the system composed of the rising and falling air.
Convection
The vertical movement of air due to atmospheric heating and cooling.
Rain Shadow
The dry region downwind of a mountain range is referred to as a rain shadow.
relative humidity
amount of water vapor as a percentage of what the air can hold “AT A PARTICULAR TEMPERATURE”
Infiltration / Runoff
When precipitation hits the ground it either soaks in (Infiltrates) or / runs off the surface.
Watershed
All the land area that contributes water to a particular stream or river.
Aquifers
Layers of porous material through which groundwater moves
Recharge area
Area where water enters an area
Gravitational water
Infiltrating water not held in soil because it trickles/percolates.
Capillary water
Water held in soil
Water table
The upper surface of groundwater.
Land Subsidence
Gradual settling of the land
Sinkhole
Results when an underground cavern, drained of its supporting groundwater, suddenly collapses.
Parent material
The Mineral material of soil
Loam
Soil with 40%-Silt/sand and 20% clay
Weathering
Gradual physical/chemical breakdown of parent material
5 Soil horizons: From top to bottom
O (Humus: dark material at bottom of O Horizon) A Horizon (/Topsoil: roots permeate the layer E (Eluviation: Process of leaching/Dissolving away) of materials due to down movement of water. B Horizon: High in iron/alum/ calcium Last: C: weathered rock/glacial deposits/Volcanic ash.
Horizons
Horizontal layers of soil formation
Soil profile
A vertical slice through the horizons.
Soil classes:
Mollisols: Fertile dark soils found in temperate grassland biomes Oxisols: Soils of tropical/subtrop rainforests little O horizon due to rapid decomp of plant matter. Alfisols: Widespread moderately weathered forest soils. Not deep, well developed OAEB horizons. Aridisols: Irrigation BAD (Salinization)
Soil ferility? And another name for it.
soils ability to support plant growth. Farmers call this property: Tilth
leaching
Nutrients washed from the soil as water moves through it (soil).
Salinization
the accumulation of salts in and on the soil to the point where plant growth is suppressed.
Transpiration
Water being absorbed by the roots of plants, passing through the plant and exiting as water vapor through microscopic pores in the leaves
Stomata
Essential pores w/in leaves essential to the entry of CO2 and exit of 02 in photosynthesis
Inorganic fertilizers
Chemical formulations of required nutrients without any organic matter included.
3 major processes which expose soil to erosion and lead to soil degredation:
Overgrazing/overcultivation/deforestation.
tragedy of the commons
Overgrazing on public lands creating a lose-lose situation or a win-lose situation with the farmers.
Water-holding capacity
Soils ability to hold water after it infiltrates
Soil aeration
Land plants depend on soil being loose and porous enough to allow the diffusion of O2 into and CO2 out of the soil.
Compaction
Packing of the soil w/ excessive foot or vehicular traffic
pH
acidity or bascicity of any solution
Wilting
A plant condition due to an inadequate water supply which both conserves water and shuts off photosynthesis by closing the stomata
Soil structure
The lose clumpy characteristic of soil. NOT texture (Size) but structure meaning arrangement.
Mineralization
loss of humus and subsequent collapse of topsoil because only gritty mineral content is left (NO Humus but sand/silt/clay)
Humus
Residue of partly decomposed organic matter
Mycorrhizae
certian fungi with a symbiotic relationship to the roots of some plants.
Erosion
process of soil and humus particlease picked up and carried by water or wind.
Desertification
process of the diminishing of soil properties by erosion of topsoil and thus becoming deserts.
biota
all natural species of living things, collectively
instrumental value
its existance or use benefits some other entity
instrinsic value
value for its own sake. does not have to be useful to us to possess value
Genetic bank
Natural biota. As long a NB is preserved there is a rich endowment of genees in the bank that can be drawn upon as needed
Ethnobotany
The study of the relationship between plants and people
Ecotourism
tourists visit a place in order to observe wild species or unique ecological sites.
3 crtical elements in the process of designating a species as endangered or threatened
1.) Listing. (must not take into account economic impacts). 2.) Critical habitat. Areas where it is found are designated as CH’s. 3.) Recovery plans.
ESA: Endangered species act. Endangered Species?
Endangered:a Species that has been reduced to a point where it is in imminent danger of becoming extinct if protection not provided.
Threatened Species?
judged to be in jeopardy but not on the brink of extinction.
3 threats to biodiversity:
a.habitat change b.introduced alien speices. c.exploitation
MSY (Maximum sustainable yield)
The highest possible rate of use that the system/species can match with its own rate of replacement or maintenance.
Carrying capacity
the maximum population the ecosystem can support on a sustainable basis
Optimal population
when a population is at or near the ecosytems carrying capacity, production can be increased by thinning pop so that competition is reduced and optimal growth/rep rates are achieved. Thus optimal population is theoritally (due to variable carrying capacity based on weather, etc.) half the pop at carrying capacity.
Precautionary principle
where there is uncertainty resource managers must favor protection of living resource. thus exploitation limits must be set well enough below msy to allow for uncertainties
Commons
When a resource is owned by many people in common or no one (open-access) it’s referred to as:
sylvan/silvaculture
think of a forest
Land trusts
A non-profit organization that will accept either gifts of land or easements. They may also purchase land.
Easements
Arrangements in which (associated with land trusts) the landowner gives up development rights into the future but retains ownership of the parcel.
Pathogens
Disease-causing bacteria, viruses and other parasitic organisms).
Non-Point sources of pollution
Agricultural runoff, storm-water drainage, atmospheric deposition.
Point sources of pollution
Easy to identify/easier to monitor. involve discharge of substances from factories, sewage systems, oil wells, underground coal mines, power plants.
Bed load
Especially destructive sediment involving sand and silt not readily carried in suspension but gradually washed along the bottom
The two most important nutrient elements for aquatic plant growth
nitrogen and phospherous
Arsenic
Human carcinogen occuring naturally in groundwater.
To combat eutrophication:
1.) Chem treatments (herbicides). 2.) Drawing water down. 2.) Aeration 4.) Harvesting aquatic weeds.
Pasteurized
Heated sufficiently to kill any pathogens.
composting
a process to treat sewage sludge whereby: Rawsludge is mixed with wood chips or some other water-absorbing material to reduce the water content.
Denitrification
The process of reducing oxidized nitrogen compounds present in soil or water back to nitrogen gas in the atmosphere, conducted by certain bacteria. Can be used for treatment of sewage effluents