Enviro AP Review

abiotic

nonliving

biotic
living/once alive
species
group of similar organisms that can freely interbreed.
population

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 members of the same species living in the same area at the same time.

lithosphere
the soil and rock in the Earth’s crust
what is one kcal?

Amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water 1°C

potential energy

o   Stored energy, result of the position of matter, not its motion.

what is the first law of thermodynamics?

o   Energy cannot be created or destroyed.

o   Amount of energy present in the universe at its formation is the amount that exists today.

whats the second law of thermodynamics?

o   When energy is converted from one form to another, some is degraded into a less usable form (heat) that goes into the surrounding environment.

o   No process requiring energy conversion can be 100% efficient.

entropy

Measure of disorder

chlorophyll

Photosynthetic pigment

Green, absorbs radiant energy

  Used to make glucose from CO2

 

trophic levels

the feeding levels in a food chain or food web.  

producers are known by what other name?
autotrophs
detritus
organic matter that includes animal carcasses, leaf litter and feces
how do hydrothermal vent communities derive energy?
bacteria living in the tissues of the tube worms extract energy from hydrogen sulfide. 
whats a food web and whats so great about it
a complex of interconnected food chains in an ecosystem. A food web is a much more realistic model of the flow of energy through an ecosystem because it shows multiple possibilities, whereas the food chain shows only one
energy flow is always _______.
linear (one way)
pyramid of numbers
The Number pyramid shows the number of organisms in each trophic level 
pyramid of biomass
This pyramid indicates the total mass of the organisms in each trophic level
pyramid of energy
The Energy pyramid indicates the total amount of energy present in each trophic level
net primary productivity =
NPP = GPP – CELLULAR RESPIRATION
ecosystem
 a biological community and its abiotic environment 
keystone species
an organism that is vital in determining the nature and structure of an entire ecosystem
coevolution
the change of a biological object triggered by the change of a related object
symbiosis
any intimate relationship between members of two or more species. 
mutualism
a symbiotic relationship in which both partners benefit
commensalism
a type of symbiosis in which one organism benefits and the other one is neither harmed nor helped
parasitism
a symbiotic relationship in which one member, the parasite, benefits, and the other, the host, is harmed
give 2 animal defenses

many animals can run very quickly, burrow, have spines or quills, shells, some live in herds, skin toxins, warning coloration, camouflage or sharp teeth and claws.

give 2 plant defenses
plants have spines, thorns, tough leaves, thick wax or toxins (nicotine).
fundamental niche
The full potential niche that an organism can fulfill.
realized niche

·      The niche that an organism actually fulfills. It is more limited due to competition

limiting factor
Characteristics of an ecosystem which determine if an organism can live there
competitive exclusion

o   No two species may occupy the same niche. The greater the overlap between the species, the greater one dominates over the other.

ecotone
transitional zone between ecosystems
natural selection
The species which are naturally best adapted to their environment survive to reproduce
primary succession
Succession where there is no soil.
pioneer community
The initial community that comes in primary succession
secondary succession

·      Succession where the ecosystem has been destroyed but there still is soil. 

answer to everything on the AP test?
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