group of similar organisms that can freely interbreed.
members of the same species living in the same area at the same time.
what is one kcal?
Amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water 1°C
what is the first law of thermodynamics?
oEnergy cannot be created or destroyed.
oAmount of energy present in the universe at its formation is the amount that exists today.
whats the second law of thermodynamics?
oWhen energy is converted from one form to another, some is degraded into a less usable form (heat) that goes into the surrounding environment.o
Measure of disorder
Green, absorbs radiant energy
the feeding levels in a food chain or food web.
producers are known by what other name?
organic matter that includes animal carcasses, leaf litter and feces
how do hydrothermal vent communities derive energy?
whats a food web and whats so great about it
a complex of interconnected food chains in an ecosystem. A food web is a much more realistic model of the flow of energy through an ecosystem because it shows multiple possibilities, whereas the food chain shows only one
energy flow is always _______.
linear (one way)
pyramid of numbers
pyramid of biomass
This pyramid indicates the total mass of the organisms in each trophic level
pyramid of energy
The Energy pyramid indicates the total amount of energy present in each trophic level
net primary productivity =
NPP = GPP – CELLULAR RESPIRATION
a biological community and its abiotic environment
an organism that is vital in determining the nature and structure of an entire ecosystem
the change of a biological object triggered by the change of a related object
any intimate relationship between members of two or more species.
a symbiotic relationship in which both partners benefit
a type of symbiosis in which one organism benefits and the other one is neither harmed nor helped
give 2 animal defenses
many animals can run very quickly, burrow, have spines or quills, shells, some live in herds, skin toxins, warning coloration, camouflage or sharp teeth and claws.
give 2 plant defenses
plants have spines, thorns, tough leaves, thick wax or toxins (nicotine).
·The niche that an organism actually fulfills.
It is more limited due to competition
Characteristics of an ecosystem which determine if an organism can live there
transitional zone between ecosystems
The species which are naturally best adapted to their environment survive to reproduce
Succession where there is no soil.
·Succession where the ecosystem has been destroyed but there still is soil.