Enviro Ch. 3

Range of Tolerance 
How much of an abiotic factor an organism can withstand
Limiting Factor
Factor that is holding back a population aquatic limiting factor ex. O2, light, temperature  
Soil horizons
Zones within soil
Soil profile
Cross-section view of soil
O Horizon
Surface litter
A Horizon
Top soil (clay, silt, sand) Dark Soil: rich in nutrients Poor Soil: yellow, red, unhealthy 
Loam
equal parts of sand, silt, and clay
Leaching
Dissolving and carrying nutrients (or pollutants) through soil into lower layers
B Horizon
Subsoil, mostly broken down rock
C parent
material broken down, bedrock
Texture
Relative amount of sand, silt, and clay
Porosity
Volume of pore space
Permability
The ability of water to go through soil
Clay
high porosity, low permability 
Sand
high permability, low porosity
Sheet
Uniform loss water crosses a flat field Water erosion 
Rill
Fast flowing water Water erosion
Gully
channel becomes wider and deepers Water erosion
Conservation Tillage (no till farming)
Disturb the soil as little as possible 
Terracing
Making flat growing areas on hillsides
Contour Farming
Planting crops perpindicular to the hill slope
Strip Cropping
Planting alternating rows of crops-legumes-carrots-legumes
Alley cropping
planting crops between rows of trees
Gully Reclamation
Fast growing native grasses slows erosion
Windbreaks
Trees planted around open land
Inorganic (synthetic) fertilizers
requires large amounts of energy for production.

Releases nitrous oxide (N2O) -no humus

Organic  fertilizers
the odor is a problem. slow release of nutrients
Green manure
compost
Crop Rotation
allows nutrients to return to soil
Ecology
study of interaction between organisms and their living/non-living environment
Biotic
Living
Abiotic
Nonliving ex. temperature, sun
Lithosphere
Rock layer, upper mantle and crust
Hydrosphere
Water layer
Atmosphere
Gas layer
Troposphere
Closest to earth
Stratosphere
Ozone
Biosphere
Life
Biomes
Large regions characterized by a distinct climate and adapted vegetation 
Ecotones
A blending of biomes bear their boundaries 
Ecosystem
Biotic/abiotic components of a particular place
Community
all interacting organisms living in an area
Population
Includes members of the same species
Known Species
1.8 million; estimated 5-100 million species exist. mostly bacteria and insect
Producers
Autotrophs Make their own food thrugh photosynthesis or chemosynthesis
Consumers
Heterotrophs can’t make their own food, have to consume other organisms
Herbivores
Eat producers. Primary consumers
Carnivores
Secondary consumers;feed on primary consumers (herbivores)
Omnivores
eat both producers and consumers
Tertiary
Shark eats a fish that ate a fish that ate kelp
Detrivore
Feed on parts of dead animals
Scavengers
Feed on dead organisms they did not kill, but found dead
Decomposers
bacteria and fungi that break down dead tissues
Food chain
single path of feeding relationships;grass-;mouse-;hawk-;hawk dies
Food Web
inter related;food chains;arrow goes to person getting energy
Solar Energy
Evaporates waer, generates wind, supports plant growth;42%- heats earth and atmospheres;1% photosynthesis1% wind34% Reflected from clouds23%
Greenhouse Glasses
H2O, CO2, CH4, N2O, O3
Photosynthesis
CO2 and water are converted into glucose and oxygen;
Aerobic Respiration
break down carbohydrates to obtain the energy;requires the presence of O2
Anaerobic Respiration
Fermentation;get energy by breaking down glucose in absence of O2
Biomass
Organic matter.

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Can br produced by producers (synthesis)-dry weight

GPP (Gross primary production)
Rate that producers convert solar energy into chemical energy
NPP (Net primary production)
GPP-R;Energy output of an area of producers over a given time;R= Respiration
3 Most Productive;3 Least Productive
Most: Swamps/Marshlands, tropical rainforest, estuariesLeast: Tundra, desert scrub, extreme desert, open ocean
HIPPO
H:;Habitat destruction ; degredationI:;Invasive speciesP:;PolluationP: Human population growthO: Over exploitation
Trophic Levels- Feeding Levels
1st: Trophic Level- Plants2nd: Trophic Level- Primary consumers3rd: Trophic Level- Secondary consumers4th: Trophic Level- Tertiary consumers
What sustains life?
Solar energy, gravity, cycling of matter
What are the main causes of soil erosion?
Mainly water and wind.;Human: construction, off roading, tilling, mining, etc
Global Soil Loss?
Lost about 15% of land for agriculture due to soil erosion
Desertification;
Turning productive (fertile) soil into less productive soil-overgrazing-desforestation
Salination
Fields must be repeatedly flushed with fresh water to remove salt build up
Water Logging
Plants are over saturatedreducing yield
Sulfur Cycle
SO2 ( volcanos)Burning coalComes out of decaying materialReacts in atmosphere to create hydrogen sulfate (H2SO4), sulfuric acid (acid rain);Human Effects: refining sulfur containing petrol
Phosphorus Cycle
Very slowLimiting factor for plant growthMine phosphate out of rock and add it to fertilizers and detergents;Human EffectsWe add excess phosphates from runoff of animal wastes and fertilizers
Dead Zone (Anoxic Zones)
Anoxic: no O2;Nutrients cause an algal bloom ;– lots of algaeToo much algae grows on the surface; it blocks out lights, plants dieThen algae start to die and start to decomposeBacteria that do decomposition require O2O2 runs out, dish die, the plants are dead
Nitrogen Cycle
Nitrogen in air (N2)N2 fixation by bacteria to ammoniaNitrification by bacteria to nitrate (NO2-)Then to Nitrate (NO3-)Denitrification of nitrate (NO3-) by bacteriaback into Nitrogen Gas (N2) Atmosphere Effects of HumansAdding Nitrous Oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere can warm the atmospherecontaminate groun water from nitrate ions in inorganic fertilizers
Legumes
Contains N2 ficing bacteria in their roots that can provide nitrates for the plants
Carbon Cycle
Atmosphere (CO2)Photosynthesis/respirationLimestone (CaCO3) Effects from humansBurning fossil fuelsclearing vegetation
Water Cycle (Hydrologic Cycle)
Evaporation/transpiration-> plant sweatingCondensationPrecipitationInfiltration-> enters soilPercolation -> H2O moves through soil Effects of Human Withdrawing large amounts of fresh waterPolluting surfance and underground water