Enviro Final

Bioaccumulation
accumulation of chemicals from the environment into organism
Biomagnification
where chemicals concentrations increase as they move into higher trophic levels, not all chemicals biomagnify
Grasshopper Effect
chemicals ‘hop’ from region to region, end up in Northern/colder regions, snow pulls chemicals out of the atmosphere
What does the dose makes the poison mean?
the chemical and the concentration that the chemical is in depends on how poisonous it is
Hazard
how toxic is the chemical
Risk
probability that toxicity will occur
Toxicity
the capacity of a chemical to cause injury
Toxicology
the science of defining the concentration or doses at which chemicals cause injuries to organisms
LD50
Lethal dose, killing 50% of the population
Acute
exposure lasting short duration
Chronic
longer term exposure
Hazard Assessment
determining how dangerous a chemical is
Isotope
atoms of the same element with a different number of neutrons
Dobson unit
unit of measurement for a trace gas in the Earths atmosphere
0.01 mm at ground level
Emission scenarios
scenarios generally presented in IpCC reports, representing the outcomes of distinct narratives of economic development and demographic and technological change
Milankovitch cycles
past ice ages are linked to regular variations in the Earths orbit around the sun
Enhanced greenhouse effect
carbon dioxide
What are CFCs?
different combinations of: carbon, chlorine, and flourine
What do greenhouse gasses do?
absorb heat into the atmosphere
SST
sea surface temperature
What causes acid rain?
release of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides that undergo reactions in the atmosphere.
acidity
concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution
pH
a measure of acidity
Does acidification happen right away?
-no, takes time
– some of the acidity is buffered by the soil
Critical loads
estimate of the maximum level of S and N deposition that a system can receive without biological damage occurring
Ozone
a colourless, odourless gas and a major component of smog
sulphur dioxide
colourless gas that smells like burnt matches
Science of hope
restoration ecology
this government department managed the science for understanding the allowable catch in the cod industry
Department of Fisheries and Oceans
NPP
Net primary productivity
The ozone layer refers to a decreased concentration of ozone in what part of atmosphere?
Stratosphere
What compound makes certain areas and soils less susceptible to acid deposition?
Limestone
What phenomenon is critical to understanding why ozone levels drop so much over the Antarctic in southern hemisphere spring?
Polar stratospheric clouds
One of the primary challenges in restoring an ecosystem is answering what question?
-What is natural
-What state are we restoring the system to
Eutrophication
excessive loading of plant nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus and organic matter
Restoring and ecosystem involves restoring these two characteristics
Function and Structure
Unpolluted, natural precipitation has this pH?
5.65
Acid rain can damage ecosystems by mobilizing these chemicals?
metals/heavy metals
Carbon Monoxide
automobile exhaust
economic prosperity
expansion in environmental groups
economic decline
contraction of environmental groups
Grassroots organizations
small groups that mobilize around issues of community concern
Advisory groups
Organizations based around the collection and analysis of scientific of legal data, which is then used to inform policy
Sustainable Agriculture
-industrialization is not sustainable
-based on the conservations of forever of the agricultural soils of the world
Hills first law of environmental science
pessimism is a self-fulfilling prophesy
social fairness
Equitable and fair distribution of resources and environmental risks, within and between generations
economic viability
competitiveness remains paramount