Enviro Sci Chapter 1 & 2


biodiversity

 


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the diversity of living things found in the natural world

 


developing country

countries in which the GDP is less than $936 per capita, the category includes nations of Africa, India, Southern Asia and former Soviet Union

 


environment

the combination of all things and factors external to the individual or population of organisms in question

 


environmental movement

the upwelling of public awareness and citizen action that began during the 1960’s regarding environmental issues

 


gross domestic product (GDP)

the total value of all goods and services exchanged in a year within a country

 


human development index (HDI)

based on life expectancy, literacy, and living standards, these indices are used by the United Nations Development Program to measure progress in alleviating poverty

 


Industrial Revolution

During the 19th century, the development of manufacturing processes using fossilfuels and based on applications of scientific knowledge

 


Pollution

the presence of a substance in the environment, that because of its chemical composition or quantity, prevents the functioning of natural processes and produces undesireable environmental and health effects

 


Stewardship

the actions and programs that manage natural resources and human well-being for the common good

 

 

 

Sustainability

a property whereby a process can be continued indefinately without depleting the energy or material resources on which it depends

 


Benefit-Cost-Analysis

A comparison of the benefits of any particular action or project to its cost

 


Economic Systems

are social and legal arrangements people construct in order to satisfy their needs and wants and improve their well-being

 



Equity

an ethical principle where peoples’ needs are met in an impartial and just manner

 


Green Economy

A path to a sustainable future

 


Gross National Product (GNP)

is the market value of all the products and services produced in one year by labor and property supplied by the citizens of a country

 


Human Resources

is the set of individuals who make up the workforce of an organization, business sector, or economy

 


intragenerational equity

the attempt to achieve an equitable distribution of assets within a given generation or across existing people groups

 


land


in economic paradigm, it represents the environment

 


market-based-policy

an approach to environmental regulation that treats all polluters equally to choose theor responses on the basis of economic principles that have to do with profitability

 


regulatory approach

an approach to environmental regulation in which the EPA sets standards that are transferred to regulations, polluters are required by law to comply with the regulations