Enviro Sci Midterm

anything we get from a living or non-living environment to meet our needs and wants
non -renewable resource
exhaustible resourcecant renew in human time span, economically depeletemost economic growth has been fueled
perpetual resource
direct solar energyeg: wind, tides
potentially renewable
fairly rapid by sun in human timespancan be depleted if used faster than renewedeg: forest, fresh water, fertile soil
neo classical econ. what comprises it
supply and demandreources considered unlimited. Takes on a reductionist perspective. ( complex system as sum of its parts) Believes that the market is self correcting
what is neo classical economics also referred as
cowboy economics
Population growth
K=carrying capactiydependant on how resources are useddecrease in the resource quality/quantity reduces k
Environmental economics: what does it focus on
focuses on the reductionist perpsective like in neo classical economicsFocus on: reducing waste, reducing degradation, negative environmental impacts
Sustainable growth
circular economyapplies to first law of thermodynamics: Neither matter nor energy can be created or destroyed. it can only be transferred from one form to another..closed loop economy.

we have to deal with waste

environmental economy:3 focuses
1. Commodfiy environment…focusing on outcomes of resources (clean air, water) By putting value on resources of ecosystem, we are moving toward sustainable future2. Define optimal level of enviro pollution- calculate the level3. create policies to achieve number 2
What can happen from creating an environmental tax?
Environmental taxes:- putting a monetary value something that is negative toward the environment- taxes are however very low so it will be hard to offset negative impactsargument against: easier to pay tax then change behaviour or punish poor..

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. people cant all afford electric cars

Tradable permit:
pollution permitallowable emissions set to a target amountexcess permits sold for profit; needed permits purchasedargument against: gives people the right to pollute
Ecological economics
Interelationship between ecological, social, and economic sustainability
What does ecological economics entail?
1. Coevolution2.

Question possibility of the sustainability of a circular economy3. Natural capital cannot be replaced by human capital4. Quantitaive growth vs qualitative development.5. Valuing environmental resources beyond utility

living individual thing: grows, reaacts, reproduces, maintains homostathis
interrelationship between environment and living prganisms; energy flowSpecies- aquatic/ terrestrialWild life- undomesticated
Environmental effects of food/ fibre production
soil degradation30-40% of global cropland has been environmentally degradedenvironmental degradation implys that soil is no longer fertile meaning it is being used above its sustainable yield
What is soil
mixture of eorded rock, organic matter, nutrients, water, air, living organisms- soil is a potentially renewable resource- fliters and holds waterslowly reneweed
What are the characterisitcs of good soil
good soil is airrated soil- chemicals are naturally broken down in soil- this filters and purifies watervaries in terms of maturity- maturity reffered to how many layers soil has- 3 is maturepotentially renewable resource- but very slow
O horizon
Each soil horizon has different texture and compostion:O Horizon- where all organic matter is- without organic matter we do not have A horizon
A horizon
A Horizon- most of plant roots are here- active layer
B Horizon
B Horizon- has more pieces of rock- organic matter moving down- rock moving up- less nutrients, less organic matter
C Horizon
bedrock- rock material that is underneath all of the layers
5 types of soil
desert, decidious, tropical rainforest, grassland, coniferous
Decidous soil?
thick organic layer on top- leads to very developed thick A layerEvery year there is guaranteed a large input of organic material due to the seasons
Coniferous soil?
thinner two top layers of soli than deciduous- mostly because they have shallow root systems- also they want to hold onto needles as much as possible because it is harder for them to produce themLots of cones- dead pineneedles (organic input)- they are very acidic- limitation with respect to temperature
characteristics of Grasslands?
very well developed a horizon- constant turnover of grasses- grass easier to break down – one of the most highly producitve systems (prairie type area)
Characterisitcs of Desert soil?
limited water, limited organic material- high heat- very challenging for succulants to grow- they are going to try to hold onto organic material as much as possible- not many detriotovores in that region
What are the characteristics of tropical soil
soil similar to that of the desert- this is because there is so much rain that newly broken down organic material nutrients are washed right out of the soil- organic material doesn’t grow as often as seemed
1st trophic level
Sun (solar energy) we cannot use solar energy directly- we rely on plants to emit solar energy (primary producers)
2nd trophic level
various levels of primary consumers
3rd trophic level
secondary consumers
4th trophic
tertiary level
recycle- broken down into decomposers or detritus feeders- feed on dead organic material- recycle nutrients in the system
pyramid of energy flow
90 percent of chemical energy captured by plants is lost in form of heatLess and less energy as u move up the trophic energys- not enough energy to have a 5th trophic level10 percent energy makes up primary productivity- energy from the primary producers
net primary productivity
rate at which new energy is made by producers and available for use for consumersHigh net producitivy equals more species living in the food change
Industrialized agriculture
High inputMost high input agriculutural systems requir inputsRequire high amounts of fossil fuelsMost other industrialized agriculutre is occuring in temperate regions with exception of plantations which is in tropical regions
Traditional agriculture
a) subsistence agriculture- human laborOnly growing food to sustain themselves and family (subsistence)- everything else is left to nature (irrigation left to the rain etc)b) Intensive agriculture more inputs than subsistence- enough producitivity to sell what is above there survival needs
techniques used in traditional agriculture
Within given area they are growing one crop (mono)Traditional agriculture uses several interplanting techniques- more than one species in areaPolyvarietal cultivation- many varieties Polyculture- (bottom left picture)- many different culuturesAgroforestry- rows of trees (bottom right picture)- space in between the trees is used to grow another crop- not using fertilizer, not using pesticides- relying on weather and nature- not degrading soil as much- different species need different amounts of water- for example mono crop of corn needs a lot of water every yearBenefits: most insects are plant specific- you may lose something, but you wont lose everythingWith polyculture there is going to be a rotation of harvest- ancor soil to avoid erosion- prevent soil from drying out
techniques used in traditional agriculture
Within given area they are growing one crop (mono)Traditional agriculture uses several interplanting techniques- more than one species in areaPolyvarietal cultivation- many varieties Polyculture- (bottom left picture)- many different culuturesAgroforestry- rows of trees (bottom right picture)- space in between the trees is used to grow another crop- not using fertilizer, not using pesticides- relying on weather and nature- not degrading soil as much- different species need different amounts of water- for example mono crop of corn needs a lot of water every yearBenefits: most insects are plant specific- you may lose something, but you wont lose everythingWith polyculture there is going to be a rotation of harvest- ancor soil to avoid erosion- prevent soil from drying out
what is the definition of the environment?
ll biotic (organisms, their food and their interactions – alive) and abiotic (sunlight, soil, air, water, climate and pollution – not alive) factors (external factors) that act on an organism, population or ecological community.

The biotic and abiotic factors influence survival and development

from Oikos (greek household) – what is important to know about your household? – parallel in the “larger Oikos?”
What is the precautionary principle
f there is a policy or action to be taken that has the potential risk to cause harm for either the public or the environment and there is no scientific consensus that it won’t cause harm, then it is up to whoever is taking that action (or enacting the policy) to provide proof to ensure that it doesn’t cause harm.
What are important environmental issues influenced by?
hegemonic power positionheld by a state or class when it so dominates its sphere of operation that otherstates or classes are forced to comply with its wishes – cultural practices, traditions, values and educations
Anthropocentric world view
Anthropocentric Worldview: – Planetary worldview, human-centred, Western industrial/post-industrial.Dominant worldview. – Four themes:1. Dualism – Humans are separate from nature 2.

Hierarchy – Humans are most important 3. Utility – Nature as a resource for humans; intrinsic vs instrumental value(Instrumental value – value due to the way it can be used for something else, whereas intrinsic is it is valued for what it is)4. Stewardship – Humans in charge of taking care of nature for other species and generations- Comes from the 18th century; secular, individualism. – Understanding, controlling and managing the planet for our benefit meanssuccess. – Assumption: Economic growth is good and unlimited. – That a healthy environment depends on a healthy economy.

– Earth’s resources are unlimited and indefinitely renewable with science andtechnology. – science cannot create NATURAL resources! There is a finite amount!

biocentric worldview
We need the earth, the earth does not need us – Earth’s resources are limited and to be sustainably used by all species (intrinsicvalue) – Not all economic growth is beneficial – Earth-degrading growth should be discouraged/prohibited – Healthy economy depends on a health environment – We will never have enough information/understanding to manage the planet – Understands complexity
ecocentric worldview
all living and non-living components of Earth have right to exist in a natural state(no human interference) – Moral values and rights for all organisms and ecosystems – Resources are limited – Not all economic growth and technological advancement is beneficial – Humans should adapt to the needs of the Earth – Middle ground
environmental groups vs green political parties
High concern for environment among public; decreasing trend- Membership: some overlap – Concern inadequately reflected in politics (Should be Cross-class, nonpartisan –BEYOND parties, no matter what you believe it is there) – Environmental groups can influence politics of all parties – campaigning, action,lobbying. Varied interests/goals, inconsistent, unstructured. – People see environment and economy as two separate things
what is the definition of the environment?
all biotic and abiotic factors that act on an organism, population or ecological communtiy
what do biotic and abiotic factors do?
they influence the survival and development
Who were the hunter gatherers
30000 years of hunter gathers, ending between the years 10000-20000 YBP.

The resources they gathered were for survival only (they were nomadic). They shared duties and were population controlled. Had a fairly limited lifespan. Their energy sources were natural energy such as wind and water and plants, as well as human muscle and fire. They had a relatively low environmental impact

What was the agricultural revolution?
Began in the years 10000-12000 YBP.There was the domestication of plants and animals. Subsistence farming and reliable supply and trade
What was the development like of the agricultural revolution?
The agricultural revolution was a result of urbanization. This lead to increased competition and conflict.

There was a culture shift with respect to the duties of nature. Energy sources were solar, fire, human and animal muscle. There was an increase in environmental impact. More food was being harvested and grown which lead to an increase in human population

What was the industrial revolution?
Increase of industrial acitvity. This lead to urban expansion.

Fertilizers and plant breeding led to more food. Environmental impact lead to erosion and degradation. THe population during this time exploded.

From 1 billion people in 1800 to 7 billion in 2011- exponential pop growth. Energy sources included the expansion of fossil fuels and metal. The sources of energy were not being controlled

What will limit population size?
decreased reproductionincreased mortality
what factors will lead to a decrease in reproduction.

different socio economic factorshigher levels of affluencehigher levels of education among womenwomen having children at a later agefemale employment statuspension availability (children dont have to take care of parents when they get older)urbanizationolder age of marriage, decreased infant mortality
What are the differences in lifestyle, experience and outlook on life between the generation that grew up during the Great Depression and the generation that grew up in the 1950’s, after World War II?
During the Great Depression – learned to live from the earth, simpler lifestyle. After WW2 – increase in labour, production line. Spoil children.
What factors and attitudes contributed to the development of the car culture and abandonment of public transit after WWII?
Want to believe in a future that was expansive. The creation of the production line – TAYLORISM. Assumption that there was just always going to be land and oil. Automobile was the future.

What invention/discovery was deemed the salvation of humanity, but also lead to reliance on technology?
Nuclear bomb .The ability to manipulate radioactive technology.
What president supported and backed Rachel Carson? What was the response of industry/scientists?
Overuse of pesticides – right moment and right book. The industry first reacted calling her hysterical and saying they were gross misinterpretation of actual facts. Not held up by scientific fact. Kennedy supported her.
What “first” occurred in the 1960’s?
The first list of endangered animals – including American Bald Eagle.
What two organizations were on the forefront of conservation issues during the1960’s?
National Wildlife Organization and CR Club.

Describe the point of view and goals of the counter-culture?
Reduce your impact and do less to effect the Earth. Very anti-technology. Much of it disapproved of the space missions.
How did the photos of Earth from space change the point of view of individuals?
Not just about the individual anymore, but about the entire world. Flips is from a world we’re on to a planet we’re in. Realized it is a small thing.
When was the first Earth Day, who’s idea was it, which political party did they belong to and what new U.

S. Federal Agency was created?

1970 – originally spent on Spring Equinox. Gaylord Nelson and Denis Hayes. – Republican. Environmental Affairs.
What did the critics of the environmental movement and Earth Day suggest the real purpose of the movement was?
Deflecting from Vietnam? Said it was a communist plot.

How did those involved in the movement help in removing 7 political incumbents?
By creating a campaign called the dirt dozen – targeting 12 members of congress with terrible environmental records.
Why did Nixon sign the Clean Water and Clean Air Bill?
Has to be now? There are environmental effects. Gave people the power to challenge unlimited technological growth.
What year range did the book Limits to Growth predict that if nothing were done word result in human population reaching the limits and overshoot carrying capacity and lead to civilization collapse?
2010 – 2030.
What significant event occurred in 1973 that was the first wakeup call that the standard of living at that time could be held hostage by another country?
When the Middle East war began, they realized oil could be withheld.

Price of gasoline quadrupled

What was the name of the document put forth by Nixon in the 1950’s that focused on energy security for the U.S. and what were some reasons it never went through?
Paley Commision. As a matter of national security.
Why is the shaming-and-blaming style activism generally not effective?
Did not implement true sustainability.
Which U.S.

president was the first to bring alternative energy to the Whitehouse and which one dismantled his efforts?

Carter was the first to bring alternative energy. Reagan shut down the efforts.
what was the grassroots movement?
it was a small scale movement. A community level movement. Example includes eating locally. These small things are the things that result in change
What is a social movement?
collective actions whose outcomes have a puropose.

Whether in victory or defeat, these actions transform the values and institutions of a society

what is the difference between an environmentalist and an environmental scientist?
environmentalist could be anyone. Environmental scientist has an educational science degree and background
What is environmental justice?
fair treatment and meanigful involvement of all people of different races, gender and religion on the implementation and enforcement of environmental laws, policies and regulations
Who has a greater burden of environmental issues?
Those who are of lower socio economic status usually experience greater threat of environmental issues. They are exposed to greater levels of pollution and often do not have the same access to resources as well off people do
Why are women held at a disadvantage with environmental issues?
70 percent of women are of lower socio economic status.

This means they have less ability to influence economic decisions for the environment. They are often in charge of domestic duties such as cookling and cleaning. Washing in polluted rivers

What are some of the aguments against international environmental politics?
Internationalization: reduces the environmental issues that are dealt with (air pollution, ozone depletion etc. Depends on who has the most power, not necessarily focused on those who do not have the same powerSustainable development: The saying we must meet our present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs is flawed. This is because it is an oxymoron on how we view world development. Post industrious we must be able to look forward
What is the signficance of greenwashing?
greenwshing refers to the marketing and superficial approach of making a political party look like it has a platform for environmental issues. It is signficant because usually, greenwashing follows with the intent of thses politcal parties ignoring these environmental issues once they are appointed
What are most socieites attidudes towards the environment
They are conservative and resistant
Who can affect change in the environment?
Local governments and campaigns can produce results.

Still not sure of what can happen on a national scale

What needs to happen for environmental platforms to be put into place?
There needs to be support from people and political will
What are the 5 thought processes of ecological economics?
Coevolution, question the possibility of the sustainablitly of circular economy, natural capital cannot be replaced by human capital, quantative vs qualitative development, valuing environmental sources beyond utility
What is coevolution?
Natural and human systems evolve together- belief in coeveolution. Complexity in systems
What arguments can be made against the credibility of the sustainability of a circular economy?
Second law of thermo dynamics: energy quality is lost when transferred from one form to another. Usable energy converted to unusable energy. When being transformed, usually losing something in equation- usually heat
why cant natural capital be replaced by human capital
Ecological systems are often complex and unpredicatable. Usually scientific uncertaintity- market value of resources do not consider this.Sustainable level of economic growth and optimal level of environmental protection not likely possible. Precautionary principle better alternative to cost benefit analysis due to the safe minimum standards
Quantitative growth vs qualititative development
GDP vs quality development (HDI, GNH, HPI)
Valuing environmental resources beyond utility
Recognizing intrinsic valueUnderstanding true social value or value ecosystem serviesPutting a monetary value on environmental (natural) resources (natural capital)
What is a monocrop?
it is one crop that uses the same nutrients over and over again.

If you have a monocrop and there is an outbreak of fungus, you will lose all of the crops. Polyculture is an insurance plan.

Global food production
25 percent of agriculture feeds 80% of people (Industrialized and plantation agriculture)38% of land is airrable
What systems provide us food?
croplands amount 77%Rangelands amount to 16 %Ocean fisheries are 7%Technological advances have contributed to advances in all 3 sectors
What are we eating?
There are over 30000 different edible plant specieswe usually eat about 14 different ones8 different animal species- 90 % of caloric intakeLow diversity
The great irony
1 billion people do not have enough food to maintain good health1 billion people are confronting health issues with respect of excess of food
Canadas food production role
agriculutre makes up 10 percent of canadas empolyment rate and 8.5 percent of GNP21 billion dollar export and surplusprairie province 83 percentontario/quebec 13 percentEnvironmental costs are soil erosion, water pollution, pesiticde use
Ways to increase food supply:
green revoultion techniques, increase crop production, increase production of meat, produce more fish/shellfish
Gureen revolution techniques
focus upon more useable land, more food in same amount of space.3 steps:1. Monocultures- genetically modified high yield varieties2.

Large input of water, fertilzers and pesticides3. Mulitiple cropping

Projected advantages of GMO crops and foods
Less fertilizer, less water,more resistant to insects disease frost and droughtfaster growth, can grow on slightly salty soilsless spoilage, better flavour, less use of conventional pesticidesTolerate higher levels of herbicide useProduce higher yield
Green revolution
Emphasis on more usable land, higher yieldsMore crop in same amount of space3 steps. 1.

Monoculutres: genetically modified high yield varieties2. Large inputs of water, pesticide and fertilizers3. Mulitiple cropping

GM crops and foods projected disadvantages:
irreversable and unpredictable genetic and ecological effectsHarmful toxins in food from possible plant cell mutationsNew allergens in foodlower nutritionIncreased evolution of pesticide resistant insects and plant diseasesHarm beneficial insectsLower genetic diversitycreation of herbicide resistant weeds
How are GMO’s created?
Not caused by a chemical. Transferring of genes from one plant to another. INcludes pesticide resistant plants1.Locate gene you want2. Insert into bacterial plasmid dna3.

Plasmid put into bacteria to multiple4. Target gene put into target organism

Environmental consequences of feed lots
Overgrazing- above sustainable yield- waste, grain, methane, soil issuesSpaces in soil are important for air and waterNo organic matter because compacted. Cannot grow anythingWaste storage can be stored improperly and cause leaching into soil and waterIncreased meat- increase crops for them
what is the impact of methane, nitrogen and phosphorous ?
Methane is more potent that co2, traps in more heatnitrogen and phosporous deplete the oxygen in the water
above sustainable yieldcommercial extincition- population of that species is no longer large enough to be commercially viable to be fished ex cod) and subsidies75 percent of fisheries overfished
what are fisheries:
high concentration of aquatic species suitable for commercial harvesting
What is aquaculture?
aquaculture is comprised of aquatic feedlotsFish farming: can be on land, in manmade lakes, usually where currents are low. Fish are always captiveFish ranching: usually Salmon, they have a homing sense. So wherever it was released as injuvenile, comes back to reproduce and catch it.

Feeds naturally and has a certain duration where it is not in captivity.

Problems with aquaculture:
waste concentration, food requirement, eutrophication, habitat destruction, species entanglementWaste falls to the bottom and just sitsAlso, Feed caught fish from fisheries. So if increase fisheries, then have to increase feeding them. Not natural foods anymore.

Habitat destruction – add seaweed to help get rid of nitrogen and phosphorous

Solutions to aquaculture
Sustainable aquaculture pracitisesAquaponics? Fish with plant pairings – indoors, not large scale, testing phase, will clean up water for harvesting.
What are some environmental issues affecting soil?
Land degradation:soil erosion, desertification, soil salinization and waterlogging
Land degradation:
natural or human processes that decrease future ability of land to support crops, live stock, wildlife species30-40 % of worlds agriculture is degraded. Mostly due to agricultural causes
Soil eroson
The movement of soil from one place to another. Loss of soil fertility and sediment buildup. The big three causes are wind, water and people
Soil erosion in Canada
Wind erosion mostly found in the prairies.

Regions with high rainfall experience water erosion (Maritimes, BC, Ontario)Run off and water quality effects- again pesticides move with the soil

urbanization with soil erosion
By putting down concrete/ashphalt, this limits water movement into the soil- water erosionRemoving vegetation and putting down impervious materials, interferes with hydrological cycle. As well, plants give off water through transpiration- reduces likelihood for percipitation
Results in the decrease of production potential
Causes of desertification:
Overgrazing, deforestation, erosion, salinization, soil compaction, Natural climate change
Consequences of desertification
Worsening drought, famine, economic loss, lower living standards, environmental refugees
What percentage of food production does irrigated land comprise of?
40 %
accumulation of salt deposits left on soil surface from evaporating water. Even though fresh water has salts. When irrigating, some water is going to stay on soil surface. When evaporates, leaves behind patches of salt, causing salty soil.
irrigation applied to leach salts; inadequate drainage leads to rising water table. Idea is to irrigate more to flush out salt.

What happens is clay is impermeable, the water builds back up, mixes with salty soil and becomes salt water that is toxic to plants.

Solutions to environmental issues affecting soil:
Soil conservation techniques ( conservation tillage, land classification, terracing, contour plannting, alley cropping, windbreaking)soil restoration: organic fertilizercrop rotation
COnservation tillage
Conservation tillage have a spectrum of techniques- opposite of tilled field is non tilled fieldLeaving at least 40 percent of residue on soil surfaceHerbicide tollerant crops remove need of turning soil over
Advantages of conservation tillage:
Reduces erosion, saves fuel, cuts costs, holds more soil water, reduces soil compaction, allows several crops per season, does not reduce crop yeilds, reduces co2 release from soil
Disadvantages to conservation tillage:
Can increase herbiced use for some cropsLeaves stalks that can harbor crop pests and fungal diseases and increase pesticide userequires investment in expensive equiptment
Land classification
Classifies erodible landWants agriculture on land that can support it (classified land)Important to clasify land with respect to its level of erodibility
What is terracing
done on a slope, create levelled strips down to a river valleyusually – allows for natural runoff.
Contour planting
perpendicular to contour in river, increasing soilnutrients.

Strip cropping – polyculture, but doing several rows of a crop next to several rows of a different crop. Different harvest times, roots present in soil, different pests, benefit one, different nutrient and waterusage. Insurance – more than one crop.-

what is alley cropping?
Also similar, have the polyculture, not beside a river, buttrees in between smaller plants.
what are windbreaks?
stops from wind erosion – cedars, pines, hedges etc.

Stopmovements of soil. And protects from wheat seed movement

What are the components of soil restoration?
organic fertilizer- food for detrivoresAnimal manureGreen manure- fresh cut grass (alive or recently alive)COmpost- has already started breakdownCrop rotation- change what you are planning
what is polyvarietal cultivation?
many varieties
(bottom left picture)- many different culutures
rows of trees (bottom right picture)- space in between the trees is used to grow another crop- not using fertilizer, not using pesticides- relying on weather and nature- not degrading soil as much- different species need different amounts of water- for example mono crop of corn needs a lot of water every year
What are some techniques of increased crop production?
Continue of green revolution techniques. Cross breading and artificial selection. GMOS
What is the purpose of GMOS?
It is mostly used on plants and is created for them to need less.

It increases the efficiency of water and nutrient use. It also allows for faster growth which allows to harvest sooner. It also allows for the harvest of multiple crops, which feeds more people

What is urban sprawl?
It is the decrease of agricultural land in developed countries. As a result we are trying to spread to developing countries
What is natural chance mutation?
At the end of the harvest season where crops are sprayed with herbicide, one crop a year is immune to this herbicide. It survives and multiplys. A new herbicide must be used that the plant is not tollerant to
(Soil Restoration)What are inorganic fertilizers
They come from rocks.

Detrivores do not eat them. They supply macro nutrients, not micro nutrientsNo nutrients for the soil

Advantages of inorganic fertilizers
They are easy and cheap(Transport, supply, maintain) (Cheap to produce)Help feed one of every 3 people in the world
Disadvantages of inorganic fertilizers
Do not add humus to soilReduce organic matter in soilReduce ability for soil to hold waterLower o2 content of soilReleases nitrous oxide
What does sustainable agriculture consist of?
Low input agriculture. Includes water, fertilizer and pesticides. Example would be organic farmingEconomic incentives: Gov subsidies- need investment. FUnding for research- needs scientists to test and review the practises
Sustainable agriculture: more of what?
High yield polyculture, organic fertilizers, Integrated pest management, irrigate efficiency, Perrenial crops, crop rotation, soil conservation
SUstainable agriculture: less of what?
Soil erosion, soil salinization, overfishing, overgrazing, loss of biodiversity, food waste, pop growth, diversity
Solutions for soil salinization:
Clean up. put water pipes that run deep under crops. When irrigated, water runs through pipes through small holes that filter out to nearby water source
Problem with cleaning technique to soil salinization:
It is expensive and cause other environmental problems
Further solutions to soil salinization
Switch to soil tolerant crops such as barley, sugarbeat, cotton- do not grow for 2-5 years
The science behind what we eat:
– Essentially no waste system- Produicers- aututraphs aka first trophic level- Consumers- 2nd, 3rd, 4th trophic levels- Detritiovers- decomposer (recyclers)
Theories in ecological economics state that determining sustainable levels of economic growth and optimal environmental protection are not possible. Explain why
– Natural systems are complex and unpredictable and there is always scientific uncertainty.

Therefor determining optimal levels of protection of natural capital that allow for continued/sustainable economic growth (by human capital) will always be inaccurate

What inventions and discoveries allowed increased production and pop expansion duriong industrial revolotuion
– Fertilizers and plant breeding- Fossil fuels and related equipment
How does addressing environmental politics on an international scale not resolve environmental injustice?
– Issues of focus are those of more concern for richer countries or countrywide issues- Difficult to ensure implementation of international policies
pattern or model or concept of how something is viewed
Paradigm Shift
how a set of theories or hegemonic set of ideas gives way to another
Two Basic Groups:
1. Individual-centred or Atomistic: – Anthropocentric: human-centred – Biocentric: life-centred 2. Earth centred or Holistic – Ecosystem or ecosphere centred – Ecocentric