Enviro Sci Midterm

anything we get from a living or non-living environment to meet our needs and wants
non -renewable resource
exhaustible resource
cant renew in human time span, economically depelete
most economic growth has been fueled
perpetual resource
direct solar energy
eg: wind, tides
potentially renewable
fairly rapid by sun in human timespan
can be depleted if used faster than renewed
eg: forest, fresh water, fertile soil
neo classical econ. what comprises it
supply and demand
reources considered unlimited. Takes on a reductionist perspective. ( complex system as sum of its parts) Believes that the market is self correcting
what is neo classical economics also referred as
cowboy economics
Population growth
K=carrying capactiy
dependant on how resources are used
decrease in the resource quality/quantity reduces k
Environmental economics: what does it focus on
focuses on the reductionist perpsective like in neo classical economics
Focus on: reducing waste, reducing degradation, negative environmental impacts
Sustainable growth
circular economy
applies to first law of thermodynamics: Neither matter nor energy can be created or destroyed. it can only be transferred from one form to another..closed loop economy. we have to deal with waste
environmental economy:
3 focuses
1. Commodfiy environment…focusing on outcomes of resources (clean air, water) By putting value on resources of ecosystem, we are moving toward sustainable future
2. Define optimal level of enviro pollution- calculate the level
3. create policies to achieve number 2
What can happen from creating an environmental tax?
Environmental taxes:
– putting a monetary value something that is negative toward the environment
– taxes are however very low so it will be hard to offset negative impacts
argument against: easier to pay tax then change behaviour or punish poor… people cant all afford electric cars
Tradable permit:
pollution permit
allowable emissions set to a target amount
excess permits sold for profit; needed permits purchased
argument against: gives people the right to pollute
Ecological economics
Interelationship between ecological, social, and economic sustainability
What does ecological economics entail?
1. Coevolution
2. Question possibility of the sustainability of a circular economy
3. Natural capital cannot be replaced by human capital
4. Quantitaive growth vs qualitative development.
5. Valuing environmental resources beyond utility
living individual thing: grows, reaacts, reproduces, maintains homostathis
interrelationship between environment and living prganisms; energy flow
Species- aquatic/ terrestrial
Wild life- undomesticated
Environmental effects of food/ fibre production
soil degradation
30-40% of global cropland has been environmentally degraded
environmental degradation implys that soil is no longer fertile meaning it is being used above its sustainable yield
What is soil
mixture of eorded rock, organic matter, nutrients, water, air, living organisms
– soil is a potentially renewable resource- fliters and holds water
slowly reneweed
What are the characterisitcs of good soil
good soil is airrated soil- chemicals are naturally broken down in soil- this filters and purifies water
varies in terms of maturity- maturity reffered to how many layers soil has- 3 is mature
potentially renewable resource- but very slow
O horizon
Each soil horizon has different texture and compostion:
O Horizon- where all organic matter is- without organic matter we do not have A horizon
A horizon
A Horizon- most of plant roots are here- active layer
B Horizon
B Horizon- has more pieces of rock- organic matter moving down- rock moving up- less nutrients, less organic matter
C Horizon
bedrock- rock material that is underneath all of the layers
5 types of soil
desert, decidious, tropical rainforest, grassland, coniferous
Decidous soil?
thick organic layer on top- leads to very developed thick A layer
Every year there is guaranteed a large input of organic material due to the seasons
Coniferous soil?
thinner two top layers of soli than deciduous- mostly because they have shallow root systems- also they want to hold onto needles as much as possible because it is harder for them to produce them
Lots of cones- dead pineneedles (organic input)- they are very acidic- limitation with respect to temperature
characteristics of Grasslands?
very well developed a horizon- constant turnover of grasses- grass easier to break down – one of the most highly producitve systems (prairie type area)
Characterisitcs of Desert soil?
limited water, limited organic material- high heat- very challenging for succulants to grow- they are going to try to hold onto organic material as much as possible- not many detriotovores in that region
What are the characteristics of tropical soil
soil similar to that of the desert- this is because there is so much rain that newly broken down organic material nutrients are washed right out of the soil- organic material doesn’t grow as often as seemed
1st trophic level
Sun (solar energy) we cannot use solar energy directly- we rely on plants to emit solar energy (primary producers)
2nd trophic level
various levels of primary consumers
3rd trophic level
secondary consumers
4th trophic
tertiary level
recycle- broken down into decomposers or detritus feeders- feed on dead organic material- recycle nutrients in the system
pyramid of energy flow
90 percent of chemical energy captured by plants is lost in form of heat
Less and less energy as u move up the trophic energys- not enough energy to have a 5th trophic level
10 percent energy makes up primary productivity- energy from the primary producers
net primary productivity
rate at which new energy is made by producers and available for use for consumers
High net producitivy equals more species living in the food change
Industrialized agriculture
High input
Most high input agriculutural systems requir inputs
Require high amounts of fossil fuels
Most other industrialized agriculutre is occuring in temperate regions with exception of plantations which is in tropical regions
Traditional agriculture
a) subsistence agriculture- human labor
Only growing food to sustain themselves and family (subsistence)- everything else is left to nature (irrigation left to the rain etc)

b) Intensive agriculture
more inputs than subsistence- enough producitivity to sell what is above there survival needs

techniques used in traditional agriculture
Within given area they are growing one crop (mono)
Traditional agriculture uses several interplanting techniques- more than one species in area
Polyvarietal cultivation- many varieties
Polyculture- (bottom left picture)- many different culutures
Agroforestry- rows of trees (bottom right picture)- space in between the trees is used to grow another crop- not using fertilizer, not using pesticides- relying on weather and nature- not degrading soil as much- different species need different amounts of water- for example mono crop of corn needs a lot of water every year
Benefits: most insects are plant specific- you may lose something, but you wont lose everything
With polyculture there is going to be a rotation of harvest- ancor soil to avoid erosion- prevent soil from drying out
techniques used in traditional agriculture
Within given area they are growing one crop (mono)
Traditional agriculture uses several interplanting techniques- more than one species in area
Polyvarietal cultivation- many varieties
Polyculture- (bottom left picture)- many different culutures
Agroforestry- rows of trees (bottom right picture)- space in between the trees is used to grow another crop- not using fertilizer, not using pesticides- relying on weather and nature- not degrading soil as much- different species need different amounts of water- for example mono crop of corn needs a lot of water every year
Benefits: most insects are plant specific- you may lose something, but you wont lose everything
With polyculture there is going to be a rotation of harvest- ancor soil to avoid erosion- prevent soil from drying out
what is the definition of the environment?
ll biotic (organisms, their food and their interactions – alive) and abiotic (sunlight, soil, air, water, climate and pollution – not alive) factors (external factors) that act on an organism, population or ecological community. The biotic and abiotic factors influence survival and development
from Oikos (greek household) – what is important to know about your household? – parallel in the “larger Oikos?”
What is the precautionary principle
f there is a policy or action to be taken that has the potential risk to cause harm for either the public or the environment and there is no scientific consensus that it won’t cause harm, then it is up to whoever is taking that action (or enacting the policy) to provide proof to ensure that it doesn’t cause harm.
What are important environmental issues influenced by?
hegemonic power position
held by a state or class when it so dominates its sphere of operation that other
states or classes are forced to comply with its wishes – cultural practices, traditions, values and educations
Anthropocentric world view
Anthropocentric Worldview: – Planetary worldview, human-centred, Western industrial/post-industrial.
Dominant worldview. – Four themes:
1. Dualism – Humans are separate from nature 2. Hierarchy – Humans are most important 3. Utility – Nature as a resource for humans; intrinsic vs instrumental value
(Instrumental value – value due to the way it can be used for something else, whereas intrinsic is it is valued for what it is)
4. Stewardship – Humans in charge of taking care of nature for other species and generations
– Comes from the 18th century; secular, individualism. – Understanding, controlling and managing the planet for our benefit means
success. – Assumption: Economic growth is good and unlimited. – That a healthy environment depends on a healthy economy. – Earth’s resources are unlimited and indefinitely renewable with science and
technology. – science cannot create NATURAL resources! There is a finite amount!
biocentric worldview
We need the earth, the earth does not need us – Earth’s resources are limited and to be sustainably used by all species (intrinsic
value) – Not all economic growth is beneficial – Earth-degrading growth should be discouraged/prohibited – Healthy economy depends on a health environment – We will never have enough information/understanding to manage the planet – Understands complexity
ecocentric worldview
all living and non-living components of Earth have right to exist in a natural state
(no human interference) – Moral values and rights for all organisms and ecosystems – Resources are limited – Not all economic growth and technological advancement is beneficial – Humans should adapt to the needs of the Earth – Middle ground
environmental groups vs green political parties
High concern for environment among public; decreasing trend
– Membership: some overlap – Concern inadequately reflected in politics (Should be Cross-class, nonpartisan –
BEYOND parties, no matter what you believe it is there) – Environmental groups can influence politics of all parties – campaigning, action,
lobbying. Varied interests/goals, inconsistent, unstructured. – People see environment and economy as two separate things
what is the definition of the environment?
all biotic and abiotic factors that act on an organism, population or ecological communtiy
what do biotic and abiotic factors do?
they influence the survival and development
Who were the hunter gatherers
30000 years of hunter gathers, ending between the years 10000-20000 YBP. The resources they gathered were for survival only (they were nomadic). They shared duties and were population controlled. Had a fairly limited lifespan. Their energy sources were natural energy such as wind and water and plants, as well as human muscle and fire. They had a relatively low environmental impact
What was the agricultural revolution?
Began in the years 10000-12000 YBP.
There was the domestication of plants and animals. Subsistence farming and reliable supply and trade
What was the development like of the agricultural revolution?
The agricultural revolution was a result of urbanization. This lead to increased competition and conflict. There was a culture shift with respect to the duties of nature. Energy sources were solar, fire, human and animal muscle. There was an increase in environmental impact. More food was being harvested and grown which lead to an increase in human population
What was the industrial revolution?
Increase of industrial acitvity. This lead to urban expansion. Fertilizers and plant breeding led to more food. Environmental impact lead to erosion and degradation. THe population during this time exploded. From 1 billion people in 1800 to 7 billion in 2011- exponential pop growth. Energy sources included the expansion of fossil fuels and metal. The sources of energy were not being controlled
What will limit population size?
decreased reproduction
increased mortality
what factors will lead to a decrease in reproduction.
different socio economic factors
higher levels of affluence
higher levels of education among women
women having children at a later age
female employment status
pension availability (children dont have to take care of parents when they get older)
older age of marriage, decreased infant mortality
What are the differences in lifestyle, experience and outlook on life between the generation that grew up during the Great Depression and the generation that grew up in the 1950’s, after World War II?
During the Great Depression – learned to live from the earth, simpler lifestyle. After WW2 – increase in labour, production line. Spoil children.
What factors and attitudes contributed to the development of the car culture and abandonment of public transit after WWII?
Want to believe in a future that was expansive. The creation of the production line – TAYLORISM. Assumption that there was just always going to be land and oil. Automobile was the future.
What invention/discovery was deemed the salvation of humanity, but also lead to reliance on technology?
Nuclear bomb .The ability to manipulate radioactive technology.
What president supported and backed Rachel Carson? What was the response of industry/scientists?
Overuse of pesticides – right moment and right book. The industry first reacted calling her hysterical and saying they were gross misinterpretation of actual facts. Not held up by scientific fact. Kennedy supported her.
What “first” occurred in the 1960’s?
The first list of endangered animals – including American Bald Eagle.
What two organizations were on the forefront of conservation issues during the
National Wildlife Organization and CR Club.
Describe the point of view and goals of the counter-culture?
Reduce your impact and do less to effect the Earth. Very anti-technology. Much of it disapproved of the space missions.
How did the photos of Earth from space change the point of view of individuals?
Not just about the individual anymore, but about the entire world. Flips is from a world we’re on to a planet we’re in. Realized it is a small thing.
When was the first Earth Day, who’s idea was it, which political party did they belong to and what new U.S. Federal Agency was created?
1970 – originally spent on Spring Equinox. Gaylord Nelson and Denis Hayes. – Republican. Environmental Affairs.
What did the critics of the environmental movement and Earth Day suggest the real purpose of the movement was?
Deflecting from Vietnam? Said it was a communist plot.
How did those involved in the movement help in removing 7 political incumbents?
By creating a campaign called the dirt dozen – targeting 12 members of congress with terrible environmental records.
Why did Nixon sign the Clean Water and Clean Air Bill?
Has to be now? There are environmental effects. Gave people the power to challenge unlimited technological growth.
What year range did the book Limits to Growth predict that if nothing were done word result in human population reaching the limits and overshoot carrying capacity and lead to civilization collapse?
2010 – 2030.
What significant event occurred in 1973 that was the first wakeup call that the standard of living at that time could be held hostage by another country?
When the Middle East war began, they realized oil could be withheld. Price of gasoline quadrupled
What was the name of the document put forth by Nixon in the 1950’s that focused on energy security for the U.S. and what were some reasons it never went through?
Paley Commision. As a matter of national security.
Why is the shaming-and-blaming style activism generally not effective?
Did not implement true sustainability.
Which U.S. president was the first to bring alternative energy to the Whitehouse and which one dismantled his efforts?
Carter was the first to bring alternative energy. Reagan shut down the efforts.
what was the grassroots movement?
it was a small scale movement. A community level movement. Example includes eating locally. These small things are the things that result in change
What is a social movement?
collective actions whose outcomes have a puropose. Whether in victory or defeat, these actions transform the values and institutions of a society
what is the difference between an environmentalist and an environmental scientist?
environmentalist could be anyone. Environmental scientist has an educational science degree and background
What is environmental justice?
fair treatment and meanigful involvement of all people of different races, gender and religion on the implementation and enforcement of environmental laws, policies and regulations
Who has a greater burden of environmental issues?
Those who are of lower socio economic status usually experience greater threat of environmental issues. They are exposed to greater levels of pollution and often do not have the same access to resources as well off people do
Why are women held at a disadvantage with environmental issues?
70 percent of women are of lower socio economic status. This means they have less ability to influence economic decisions for the environment. They are often in charge of domestic duties such as cookling and cleaning. Washing in polluted rivers
What are some of the aguments against international environmental politics?
Internationalization: reduces the environmental issues that are dealt with (air pollution, ozone depletion etc. Depends on who has the most power, not necessarily focused on those who do not have the same power

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Sustainable development: The saying we must meet our present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs is flawed. This is because it is an oxymoron on how we view world development. Post industrious we must be able to look forward

What is the signficance of greenwashing?
greenwshing refers to the marketing and superficial approach of making a political party look like it has a platform for environmental issues. It is signficant because usually, greenwashing follows with the intent of thses politcal parties ignoring these environmental issues once they are appointed
What are most socieites attidudes towards the environment
They are conservative and resistant
Who can affect change in the environment?
Local governments and campaigns can produce results.
Still not sure of what can happen on a national scale
What needs to happen for environmental platforms to be put into place?
There needs to be support from people and political will
What are the 5 thought processes of ecological economics?
Coevolution, question the possibility of the sustainablitly of circular economy, natural capital cannot be replaced by human capital, quantative vs qualitative development, valuing environmental sources beyond utility
What is coevolution?
Natural and human systems evolve together- belief in coeveolution. Complexity in systems
What arguments can be made against the credibility of the sustainability of a circular economy?
Second law of thermo dynamics: energy quality is lost when transferred from one form to another. Usable energy converted to unusable energy. When being transformed, usually losing something in equation- usually heat
why cant natural capital be replaced by human capital
Ecological systems are often complex and unpredicatable. Usually scientific uncertaintity- market value of resources do not consider this.
Sustainable level of economic growth and optimal level of environmental protection not likely possible.
Precautionary principle better alternative to cost benefit analysis due to the safe minimum standards
Quantitative growth vs qualititative development
GDP vs quality development (HDI, GNH, HPI)
Valuing environmental resources beyond utility
Recognizing intrinsic value
Understanding true social value or value ecosystem servies
Putting a monetary value on environmental (natural) resources (natural capital)
What is a monocrop?
it is one crop that uses the same nutrients over and over again. If you have a monocrop and there is an outbreak of fungus, you will lose all of the crops. Polyculture is an insurance plan.
Global food production
25 percent of agriculture feeds 80% of people (Industrialized and plantation agriculture)
38% of land is airrable
What systems provide us food?
croplands amount 77%
Rangelands amount to 16 %
Ocean fisheries are 7%
Technological advances have contributed to advances in all 3 sectors
What are we eating?
There are over 30000 different edible plant species
we usually eat about 14 different ones
8 different animal species- 90 % of caloric intake
Low diversity
The great irony
1 billion people do not have enough food to maintain good health
1 billion people are confronting health issues with respect of excess of food
Canadas food production role
agriculutre makes up 10 percent of canadas empolyment rate and 8.5 percent of GNP
21 billion dollar export and surplus
prairie province 83 percent
ontario/quebec 13 percent
Environmental costs are soil erosion, water pollution, pesiticde use
Ways to increase food supply:
green revoultion techniques, increase crop production, increase production of meat, produce more fish/shellfish
Gureen revolution techniques
focus upon more useable land, more food in same amount of space.
3 steps:
1. Monocultures- genetically modified high yield varieties
2.Large input of water, fertilzers and pesticides
3. Mulitiple cropping
Projected advantages of GMO crops and foods
Less fertilizer, less water,more resistant to insects disease frost and drought
faster growth, can grow on slightly salty soils
less spoilage, better flavour, less use of conventional pesticides
Tolerate higher levels of herbicide use
Produce higher yield
Green revolution
Emphasis on more usable land, higher yields
More crop in same amount of space
3 steps.
1.Monoculutres: genetically modified high yield varieties
2. Large inputs of water, pesticide and fertilizers
3. Mulitiple cropping
GM crops and foods projected disadvantages:
irreversable and unpredictable genetic and ecological effects
Harmful toxins in food from possible plant cell mutations
New allergens in food
lower nutrition
Increased evolution of pesticide resistant insects and plant diseases
Harm beneficial insects
Lower genetic diversity
creation of herbicide resistant weeds
How are GMO’s created?
Not caused by a chemical. Transferring of genes from one plant to another. INcludes pesticide resistant plants
1.Locate gene you want
2. Insert into bacterial plasmid dna
3. Plasmid put into bacteria to multiple
4. Target gene put into target organism
Environmental consequences of feed lots
Overgrazing- above sustainable yield- waste, grain, methane, soil issues
Spaces in soil are important for air and water
No organic matter because compacted. Cannot grow anything
Waste storage can be stored improperly and cause leaching into soil and water
Increased meat- increase crops for them
what is the impact of methane, nitrogen and phosphorous ?
Methane is more potent that co2, traps in more heat
nitrogen and phosporous deplete the oxygen in the water
above sustainable yield
commercial extincition- population of that species is no longer large enough to be commercially viable to be fished ex cod) and subsidies
75 percent of fisheries overfished
what are fisheries:
high concentration of aquatic species suitable for commercial harvesting
What is aquaculture?
aquaculture is comprised of aquatic feedlots
Fish farming: can be on land, in manmade lakes, usually where currents are low. Fish are always captive
Fish ranching: usually Salmon, they have a homing sense. So wherever it was released as injuvenile, comes back to reproduce and catch it. Feeds naturally and has a certain duration where it is not in captivity.
Problems with aquaculture:
waste concentration, food requirement, eutrophication, habitat destruction, species entanglement
Waste falls to the bottom and just sits
Also, Feed caught fish from fisheries. So if increase fisheries, then have to increase feeding them. Not natural foods anymore.
Habitat destruction – add seaweed to help get rid of nitrogen and phosphorous
Solutions to aquaculture
Sustainable aquaculture pracitises
Aquaponics? Fish with plant pairings – indoors, not large scale, testing phase, will clean up water for harvesting.
What are some environmental issues affecting soil?
Land degradation:soil erosion, desertification, soil salinization and waterlogging
Land degradation:
natural or human processes that decrease future ability of land to support crops, live stock, wildlife species
30-40 % of worlds agriculture is degraded. Mostly due to agricultural causes
Soil eroson
The movement of soil from one place to another. Loss of soil fertility and sediment buildup. The big three causes are wind, water and people
Soil erosion in Canada
Wind erosion mostly found in the prairies.
Regions with high rainfall experience water erosion (Maritimes, BC, Ontario)
Run off and water quality effects- again pesticides move with the soil
urbanization with soil erosion
By putting down concrete/ashphalt, this limits water movement into the soil- water erosion
Removing vegetation and putting down impervious materials, interferes with hydrological cycle. As well, plants give off water through transpiration- reduces likelihood for percipitation
Results in the decrease of production potential
Causes of desertification:
Overgrazing, deforestation, erosion, salinization, soil compaction, Natural climate change
Consequences of desertification
Worsening drought, famine, economic loss, lower living standards, environmental refugees
What percentage of food production does irrigated land comprise of?
40 %
accumulation of salt deposits left on soil surface from evaporating water. Even though fresh water has salts. When irrigating, some water is going to stay on soil surface. When evaporates, leaves behind patches of salt, causing salty soil.
irrigation applied to leach salts; inadequate drainage leads to rising water table. Idea is to irrigate more to flush out salt. What happens is clay is impermeable, the water builds back up, mixes with salty soil and becomes salt water that is toxic to plants.
Solutions to environmental issues affecting soil:
Soil conservation techniques ( conservation tillage, land classification, terracing, contour plannting, alley cropping, windbreaking)

soil restoration:
organic fertilizer
crop rotation

COnservation tillage
Conservation tillage have a spectrum of techniques- opposite of tilled field is non tilled field
Leaving at least 40 percent of residue on soil surface
Herbicide tollerant crops remove need of turning soil over
Advantages of conservation tillage:
Reduces erosion, saves fuel, cuts costs, holds more soil water, reduces soil compaction, allows several crops per season, does not reduce crop yeilds, reduces co2 release from soil
Disadvantages to conservation tillage:
Can increase herbiced use for some crops
Leaves stalks that can harbor crop pests and fungal diseases and increase pesticide use
requires investment in expensive equiptment
Land classification
Classifies erodible land
Wants agriculture on land that can support it (classified land)
Important to clasify land with respect to its level of erodibility
What is terracing
done on a slope, create levelled strips down to a river valley
usually – allows for natural runoff.
Contour planting
perpendicular to contour in river, increasing soil
nutrients. Strip cropping – polyculture, but doing several rows of a crop next to several rows of a different crop. Different harvest times, roots present in soil, different pests, benefit one, different nutrient and water
usage. Insurance – more than one crop.
what is alley cropping?
Also similar, have the polyculture, not beside a river, but
trees in between smaller plants.
what are windbreaks?
stops from wind erosion – cedars, pines, hedges etc. Stop
movements of soil. And protects from wheat seed movement
What are the components of soil restoration?
organic fertilizer- food for detrivores
Animal manure
Green manure- fresh cut grass (alive or recently alive)
COmpost- has already started breakdown
Crop rotation- change what you are planning
what is polyvarietal cultivation?
many varieties
(bottom left picture)- many different culutures
rows of trees (bottom right picture)- space in between the trees is used to grow another crop- not using fertilizer, not using pesticides- relying on weather and nature- not degrading soil as much- different species need different amounts of water- for example mono crop of corn needs a lot of water every year
What are some techniques of increased crop production?
Continue of green revolution techniques. Cross breading and artificial selection. GMOS
What is the purpose of GMOS?
It is mostly used on plants and is created for them to need less. It increases the efficiency of water and nutrient use. It also allows for faster growth which allows to harvest sooner. It also allows for the harvest of multiple crops, which feeds more people
What is urban sprawl?
It is the decrease of agricultural land in developed countries. As a result we are trying to spread to developing countries
What is natural chance mutation?
At the end of the harvest season where crops are sprayed with herbicide, one crop a year is immune to this herbicide. It survives and multiplys. A new herbicide must be used that the plant is not tollerant to
(Soil Restoration)
What are inorganic fertilizers
They come from rocks. Detrivores do not eat them. They supply macro nutrients, not micro nutrients
No nutrients for the soil
Advantages of inorganic fertilizers
They are easy and cheap
(Transport, supply, maintain) (Cheap to produce)
Help feed one of every 3 people in the world
Disadvantages of inorganic fertilizers
Do not add humus to soil
Reduce organic matter in soil
Reduce ability for soil to hold water
Lower o2 content of soil
Releases nitrous oxide
What does sustainable agriculture consist of?
Low input agriculture. Includes water, fertilizer and pesticides. Example would be organic farming
Economic incentives: Gov subsidies- need investment. FUnding for research- needs scientists to test and review the practises
Sustainable agriculture: more of what?
High yield polyculture, organic fertilizers, Integrated pest management, irrigate efficiency, Perrenial crops, crop rotation, soil conservation
SUstainable agriculture: less of what?
Soil erosion, soil salinization, overfishing, overgrazing, loss of biodiversity, food waste, pop growth, diversity
Solutions for soil salinization:
Clean up. put water pipes that run deep under crops. When irrigated, water runs through pipes through small holes that filter out to nearby water source
Problem with cleaning technique to soil salinization:
It is expensive and cause other environmental problems
Further solutions to soil salinization
Switch to soil tolerant crops such as barley, sugarbeat, cotton
– do not grow for 2-5 years
The science behind what we eat:
– Essentially no waste system
– Produicers- aututraphs aka first trophic level
– Consumers- 2nd, 3rd, 4th trophic levels
– Detritiovers- decomposer (recyclers)
Theories in ecological economics state that determining sustainable levels of economic growth and optimal environmental protection are not possible. Explain why
– Natural systems are complex and unpredictable and there is always scientific uncertainty. Therefor determining optimal levels of protection of natural capital that allow for continued/sustainable economic growth (by human capital) will always be inaccurate
What inventions and discoveries allowed increased production and pop expansion duriong industrial revolotuion
– Fertilizers and plant breeding
– Fossil fuels and related equipment
How does addressing environmental politics on an international scale not resolve environmental injustice?
– Issues of focus are those of more concern for richer countries or countrywide issues
– Difficult to ensure implementation of international policies
pattern or model or concept of how something is viewed
Paradigm Shift
how a set of theories or hegemonic set of ideas gives way to another
Two Basic Groups:
1. Individual-centred or Atomistic: – Anthropocentric: human-centred – Biocentric: life-centred 2. Earth centred or Holistic – Ecosystem or ecosphere centred – Ecocentric