a slowly moving mass or river of ice formed by the accumulation and compaction of snow on mountains or near the poles
Surface Runoff
Is water, from rain, snowmelt, or other sources, that flows over the land surface, and is a major component of the water cycle
is a type of vaporization of a liquid that occurs from the surface of a liquid into a gaseous phase
evaporation of water from a plant leaf
Inner core
the Earth’s innermost part, composed of an iron-nickel alloy and some light elements.


Outer Core
composed of iron and nickel which lies above the Earth’s solid inner core and below its mantle
A type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat/pressure/reactions
A type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface
Rock formed from the consolidation of loose sediment or from chemical precipitation, such as sandstone and limestone
geological process in which sediments, soil and rocks are added to a landform or land mass
hot fluid or semifluid material below or within the earth’s crust from which lava and other igneous rock is formed by cooling
The zone of the earth below the crust and above the core.
the solid part of the earth (crust, outer mantle)
The soft layer of the mantle on which the lithosphere floats
is a crystalline solid formed through natural processes, can be an element or a compound
Condition in which the earth’s surface is worn away by the action of water and wind
is water released from clouds in the form of rain, freezing rain, sleet, snow, or hail
Fault Zones
within the Earth’s crust result from the action of plate tectonic forces,cause of most earthquakes
Are the vibrations caused by rocks breaking under stress. The underground surface along which the rock breaks and moves is called a fault plane
Seismic Activity
is defined as the types, frequency and size of earthquakes that happen over a period of time in a certain area
the point on the earth’s surface vertically above the focus of an earthquake
Richter Scale
a numerical scale for expressing the magnitude of an earthquake
Continental Crust
he relatively thick part of the earth’s crust that forms the large landmasses.

It is generally older and more complex than the oceanic crust

Oceanic Crust
the relatively thin part of the earth’s crust that underlies the ocean basins. It is geologically young compared with the continental crust and consists of basaltic rock overlain by sediments
Divergent Plate Boundaries
Plates moving away from each other in opposite directions
the sideways and downward movement of the edge of a plate of the earth’s crust into the mantle beneath another plate
Hot Spots
a small area or region with a relatively hot temperature in comparison to its surroundings
Tectonic Cycle
refers to the movement of large portions of the earth’s crust in what is termed “plates”


Seafloor Spreading
the formation of new areas of oceanic crust, which occurs through the upwelling of magma at midocean ridges and its subsequent outward movement on either side