Enviromental

Glacier

a slowly moving mass or river of ice formed by the accumulation and compaction of snow on mountains or near the poles

Surface Runoff

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Is water, from rain, snowmelt, or other sources, that flows over the land surface, and is a major component of the water cycle

Evaporation

is a type of vaporization of a liquid that occurs from the surface of a liquid into a gaseous phase

Transpiration
evaporation of water from a plant leaf
Inner core

the Earth’s innermost part, composed of an iron-nickel alloy and some light elements.

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Outer Core

composed of iron and nickel which lies above the Earth’s solid inner core and below its mantle

Metamorphic

A type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat/pressure/reactions

Igenous

A type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface

sedimentary

Rock formed from the consolidation of loose sediment or from chemical precipitation, such as sandstone and limestone

Deposition

geological process in which sediments, soil and rocks are added to a landform or land mass

Magma

hot fluid or semifluid material below or within the earth’s crust from which lava and other igneous rock is formed by cooling

Mantle

The zone of the earth below the crust and above the core.

Lithosphere

the solid part of the earth (crust, outer mantle)

Asthenosphere

The soft layer of the mantle on which the lithosphere floats

Minerals

is a crystalline solid formed through natural processes, can be an element or a compound

Erosion

Condition in which the earth’s surface is worn away by the action of water and wind

Precipitation

is water released from clouds in the form of rain, freezing rain, sleet, snow, or hail

Fault Zones

within the Earth’s crust result from the action of plate tectonic forces,cause of most earthquakes

Earthquakes

Are the vibrations caused by rocks breaking under stress. The underground surface along which the rock breaks and moves is called a fault plane

Seismic Activity

is defined as the types, frequency and size of earthquakes that happen over a period of time in a certain area

Epicenter

the point on the earth’s surface vertically above the focus of an earthquake

Richter Scale

a numerical scale for expressing the magnitude of an earthquake

Continental Crust

he relatively thick part of the earth’s crust that forms the large landmasses. It is generally older and more complex than the oceanic crust

Oceanic Crust

the relatively thin part of the earth’s crust that underlies the ocean basins. It is geologically young compared with the continental crust and consists of basaltic rock overlain by sediments

Divergent Plate Boundaries

Plates moving away from each other in opposite directions

Subduction

the sideways and downward movement of the edge of a plate of the earth’s crust into the mantle beneath another plate

Hot Spots

a small area or region with a relatively hot temperature in comparison to its surroundings

Tectonic Cycle

refers to the movement of large portions of the earth’s crust in what is termed “plates”

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Seafloor Spreading

the formation of new areas of oceanic crust, which occurs through the upwelling of magma at midocean ridges and its subsequent outward movement on either side