Environment and Culture

IPAT model
Impact=Population X Affluence X Technology
demography
applying principles of ecology to study of statistical change in human population
demographic transition
model to explain declining birth and death rates during industrialization
pre-industrial stage
1st stage of demographic transition; birth/death rates high
transitional stage
2nd stage of demographic transition; declining death rates, high birth rates
industrial stage
3rd stage of demographic transition; death rates remain low; birth rate declines
post industrial stage
4th stage of demographic transition; birth/death rates remain low and population stabilizes
municipal solid waste
non liquid waste coming from homes, small businesses, and institutions
industrial solid waste
non liquid waste coming from production of consumer goods, agriculture, and mining
hazardous waste
solid or liquid waste that is toxic
sanitary landfill
waste is buried underground or piled up large mounds
leachate
liquid that results when waste dissolves into water
source reduction
reducing amount of material entering the waste stream
material recovery facilities
where materials are sorted, and prepped to be reused
industrial ecology
seeks to redesign industrial systems to reduce waste
life-cycle analysis
making the processing of materials more efficient
impoundments
liquid hazardous waste stored in ponds
deep well injection
disposing of hazardous waste in a deep hole below the water level
Superfund
clean up US sites polluted with hazardous waste
Population of world
7billion
positives of large population
healthy species, more working force, better pension
negatives of large population
more resources used, more waste, less room
How is the population growth characterized
a J shaped curve
What continent has the highest population
China
What continent has the lowest population
Australia
crude birth/death rate
measured by thousands
natural rate of increase
crude birth rate – crude death rate/10
What does a J curve mean?
exponential growth
What does a S curve mean?
growth levels off
Malthus growth theory
growth should be controlled
Ehrlich
population growth will lead to disaster
Hardin
tragedy of commons
Population growth =???
(birth + immigration) – (death + emigration)
total fertility rate
number of children a women will have during child bearing years
replacement-level fertility
number of children a couple must have to replace themselves
doubling time
70/growth
biggest contributor of waste
paper
highest recycling rate for..?
car batteries
lowest recycling rate for..?
jars and PET plastic
percent of waste going to landfill?
55%
who regulates municipal waste?
government
who regulates industrial waste?
state/local
How many lbs does each US citizen produce in waste each day?
4.5
What percentage of waste is incinerated?
15%
What percentage is recycled?
33%