Environment and Society

Railroad Act
1850’s and 60’s
Homestead Act
Mining Act
Reclamation Act
Name the four acts promoting expansion and settlement
Railroad, Homestead, Mining, Reclamation
3 causes for change in expansionist policies:
erosion, eastern forest gone, manifest destiny was complete
name seven environmental acts
wilderness, clean air, federal water pollution control, coastal zone management, endangered species, national environmental policy, comprehensive environmental response, compensation and liability
three global environmental issues
global warming, ozone layer, globalization
wilderness act
clean air act
federal water pollution control act
federal water pollution control act was amended by:
clean water and quality water acts of 77 and 87
coastal zone management act
endangered species act
national environmental policy act
comprehensive environmental response compensation and liability act
define minerals:
a naturally occurring homogeneous inorganic solid having a definite chemical composition and characteristic crystalline structure, color, and hardness
3 categories of minerals:
reserves, unidentified resources, sub economic resources.
define reserves:
minerals currently available for use
define sub-economic resources:
The part of identified resources that does not meet the economic criteria of reserves
U.S. has how much of worlds population?
U.S. uses how much of worlds mineral resources?
Name the types of mining:
shaft, drift, strip, mountaintop removal, open pit, hydraulic
define shaft mining:
a vertical or incline passageway used to access underground facility
define drift mining:
cut into side of the earth horizontally, rather than straight down (e.g. a coal seam)
define strip mining:
form of surface mining a seam of mineral ore by first removing all the material that lies on top of it. huge machines removal that minerals
two types of strip mining:
area – on a level or flat surface

contour- hilly areas

define mountaintop removal:
involves the mass restructuring of Earth in mountainous areas in order to reach sediment and coal as deep as 1000 feet below the surface.
define open pit mining:
method of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow. Thing overburden.
define hydraulic mining:
employs water under pressure to dislodge rock material or move sediment.
define tailings:
waste from all types of mining
of all the material removed, less than _____% is considered to be pure mineral.
Florida produces ___% of ______ used by farmers for fertilizers, also used in toothpaste, metal coatings, soda’s and animal feed.
75%, phosphorous
3 places mining happens in Florida:
Fort Meade: phosphates
Quincy: Fullers Earth
Western Duval and Clay counties: heavy minerals
How many types of crops are used as food?
name the top seven food crops:
maize, rice, wheat, barley, potatoes, sweet potatoes, casaba.
Human population will be almost ____ by mid-century.
How many hectares of land on earth?
30 billion
how much of earth’s landmass is arable?
in last ___ years, arable land in Asia has increased by ____% due to forest clearing.
10, 1.3%
define swidden:
area cleared for agriculture by cutting and burning. location is moved every few years. multiple crops are planted.
define mixed cropping:
combine several different crops in single farm, and/or with livestock
define monoculture:
one crop is cultivated repeatedly over large area.
define Persistent Organic Pollutants(POPs):
chemical substances that persist in the environment, bioaccumulate through the food web, and pose a risk of causing adverse effects to human health and the environment.
define bioaccumulation:
the tendency of a pollutant to accumulate in the tissues of plants or animals
define biomagnification:
an increase in the concentration of a pollutant as it is passed up the food chain, caused by a tendency of animals to accumulate the pollutant in their tissues.
methods of fighting erosion:
terracing, planting of kudzu, strip cropping
define pastorialism:
raising of herds of livestock, often nomadically, for local trade; includes any grazing.
define feedlots:
large livestock feeding operation, cereal production feeds animals.
define agribusiness:
large and small corporations focused on profits.
% of land degradation due to overfarming
% of degradation due to overgrazing
% of land degradation due to fuel wood exploitation
% of land degradation due to industrialization
% of cereal production is U.S. feeds animals
name the 10 major sources of energy:
wood, oil, natural gas, nuclear energy, solar, wind, water, dung, peat, animal fats.
two reasons to switch to new energy sources:
scarcity, new technology
major factor causing our dependence on oil?
internal combustion engine
% of worlds energy from oil
U.S. consumes ___% or worlds energy. ____% for transport, ____% for heat/petrochemicals.
25%, 60%, 40%
____% of worlds oil reserve is located where?
66%, middle east(Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Kuwait, Iran, UAE)
how many people died in the Scotland Oil Spill? What year?
167, 1988
How many barrels per day leaked during BP oil spill?
5000 barrels (210000 gallons)
2nd largest oil reserves in world are located where?
Canada oil sands
each barrel of oil extracted requires:
2.5 barrels of water, 4 tons of earth, natural gas that can heat a home for 1-5 days.
___% increase in oil productin in Canada since ____.
24%, 1990
___% of U.S. energy from nuclear
advantages or hydroelectric power:
renewable, low operations costs, no air pollution
disadvantages of hydroelectric power:
flooding, human displacement, dam failure, downstream thermal changes.
% of U.S. power from wind in 2001
percent of worldwide power from wind
four types of solar power
centralized(utilities), decentralized(individual solar paneled homes), active(use of photovalic cells), passive(interior design)
fossil fuels must contain at least ___% of biofuels or organic matter that was harvested in the last ___ years to properly mix
80%, 10 years
sources of biofuels:
corn, soy, sewage, lumber, straw, sugarcane
___% of world energy consumption used for cooking and heating in developing countries.