we rely on fossil fuels for ___% of our energy
3 reasons why we rely on FF’s
1. abundant and accessible/transportable 2. High energy content 3. infrastructure (society is built around cheap consumption)
this was a direct result of fossil fuels
the industrial revolution
fossil fuels sustain our _________ society
____% of energy consumption goes towards our technology
conventional fossil fuels
coal, petroleum, natural gas
unconventional sources
deepwater oil, shale oil, tar sands, shale gas
what are fossil fuels
remains of long dead organisms
fossil fuels are organic materials altered by
heat and pressure
because formation rates are very slow and insignificant compared to rate of consumption
they are considered non-renewable
7 steps in production curve in non-renewables
1. initial resource discovery and development 2.resource abundance 3. production capacity sufficient for demand 4. peak production 5. Production limits 6. rising prices 7. economic depletion
these two things delays the peak timing of resource depletion
conservation and slower growth
ideal production curves were developed by
m. king hubbert, oil geologist
the basic shape of a hubbert curve is that of a
the pattern of a hubbert curve reflects
geologic constraints and can be used to predict the future
the ideal hubbert curve may be altered by these 2 things
1. technological breakthroughs 2. economic conditions may change
hubbert predicted US oil production would peak in what year
decline since early 70’s within ___% of Hubbert’s prediction
oil shortages in 70’s led to increased
exploration and development activity
consumption rises with
increase in population and affluence
consumption falls with
price hikes and recessions
IEA says that what has arrived?
the peak of global petroleum
3 things that are likely to happen as petroleum reaches its peak
1. price volatility and resultant economic slows down 2. not everyone will be served 3. supply disruptions more probable
What will happen after petroleum peaks?
1. intensified search for replacements 2. conservation measures 3. fall in total energy budget
What will happen after petroleum peaks?
1. intensified search for replacements 2. conservation measures 3. fall in total energy budget
peak of oil discover was ___ years ago
dill baby policy is..
not likely to yield much new oil reserves
offshore and deepwater driling is
difficult and hazardous
what region is gettin attention for oil
we have a choice either to reduce total energy budget or
replace oil
reduced energy budget is…
not realistic
replace fossil fuelspetroleum
natural gas, shale, or coal
natural gas production in the U.S. has been
rising due to exploitation of shale gas by fracking
coal is abundant but expanding production is resisted because
coal is the dirtiest FF
energy returned on energy invested
tar sands and shale oil have low
problems all FF have
1. hazardous/harmful environmentally 2. extraction 3. transportation 4. consumption 5. finite 6. EROIs have fallen over time
failure to replace FF may lead to
societal collapse