Environmental Biology

fossil fuels
petroleum, natural gas, and coal created by geologic forces from organic wastes and dead bodies of formerly living biological organisms.
name the types of fuel in order
crude oil
natural gas
what are the 3 seral stages and what makes the differences between them?
pioneer stage
intermediate stage
climax community stage

water and temperature make the differences

intermediate stage
grasses, shrubs, shade tolerant trees (pines)
pioneer stage
the plants, lichens, and microbes that first colonize the site.
climax community stage
shade tolerant trees (maples)
known deposits that can be extracted but only under certain economic conditions. (only profitable when the price goes up)
naturally occurring substance that can be extracted using available technology
primary succession
an area where no biotic community previously existed
secondary succession
all living things are gone and new living things need to repopulate
hydroelectric resource
energy drawn from the internal heat of the earth, either through geysers, fumaroles, hot springs, or other natural geotherm features or through deep wells that pump heated ground water.
photovoltaic cell
an energy conversion device that captures solar energy and directly converts it to electrical current.
nuclear energy
involves splitting the core of an atom
areas with similar climate,  topography, soil conditions and communities
tropical rainforests
near the equator
lots of rainfall
hot year round
temperate forest
deciduous; drops leaves in winter (to hold in moisture)
bays where rivers empty into the sea
salt tolerant trees that grow along warm coasts. they help stabilize shorelines
tide pools
are flooded at high tide but retain some water at low tide
saturated wetlands composed of deep layers of undecayed vegetation
dominated by grass and plants
good soils
pros and cons of burning natural gas
pros; burns very clean

cons; not easy to capture and transport

pros and cons of burning crude oil
pros; burns cleaner than coal, easier to transport

cons; not many resources

pros and cons of burning coal
cons; lots of pollution, black lung disease

pros; significant resources

pros and cons of burning wood
cons; pollution, overharvesting

pros; renewable

non-renewable resources
minerals, fossil fuels, and other materials present in essentially fixed amounts (within human time scales) in our environment
renewable resources
resources normally replaced or replenished by natural processes
the use of normal materials or absorptive structures without moving parts to gather and hold heat
mechanical systems that use moving substances to collect and transfer solar energy
organic material from decaying plants. major source of plant nutrients
mulch tillage
only plowing immediately before planting
ridge tilling
only tilling wide enough to insert seeds
not tilling before planting
need lots of transportation, planting a single species, lacking biodiversity. not labor intensive (is machine labored)
smaller gardens with a variety of plants. more people labor, not machine labored.
green revolution
dramatically increased agricultural production. requires high inputs of water, plant nutrients, and pesticides. (used to keep the pace with growing human populations)
converting once fertile land to desert
close physical interaction between 2 individuals of different species
what are the 3 types of symbiosis and what do they mean?
parasitism- living on or in another organism and causes harm

commensalism- one organism may benefit, but no harm is caused

mutualism- both species benefit from the relationship