Environmental Biology

sprawl

unlimited, unplanned growth of urban areas that consumes open space and wastes resources.
human ecological footprint
the amount of productive land and water surface required to support all the needs of a person.
isotopes
elements that differ in atomic mass
I=PAT Formula
A country’s Impact is not just from it’s population, but also it’s affluence and the technology it uses to provide the goods and services it consumes.
total fertility rate
the # of children born to an average woman in a populationduring her entire reproductive life
adaptation
species of organisms survive and breed based on genetic traits that give them an advantage
polar-covalent bond
protons and electrons are notshared evenly
crude death rate
the # of deaths per thousand people in any given year
ecology
the study of how organisms affect and interact with each other and their environment
crude birth rate
the number of births per year per thousand persons
conservation of matter
matter is neither created nor destroyed. it does not disappear, it changes form
chemical;potential energy;
energy that can be released to do useful work, stored in chemical bonds of molecules. ex) food, gasoline
zero population growth
births + immigration
;;;;;; =
deaths + emmigration
tertiary consumers
(carnivores) animals who eat the seconday consumers
ex) owl, hawk
secondary consumers
(carnivores) animal who eats the primary consumer
ex) fox eat deer and cows
primary consumers
(herbivores) an organism that eats producers
ex) cows and deer eat plants
covalent bond
sharing electrons
dependency ratio
the # of non working compared with working individuals in a population;
ionic bond
no electron sharing
hydrogen bonds

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weak bonds that are constantly broken (between water molecules)

ecological niche
a species role and environment
ecosystem
group of interacting species in a particular environment
biosphere
all areas of the environment where living organisms are found
potential energy
stored energy that is latent but available for use. ex) water behind the dam
energy
the ability to do work
atom
the smallest part of an element
molecule
2 or more atoms covalently bonded to each other
photosynthesis equation
6H2O+6CO2+solar energy;;;;C6H12O6+6O2
2nd law of thermodynamics
with each energy transfer or transformation in a system, less energy is available to do work. (energy is lost as it is used)
controlled experiment
study between two groups that are identical except for the factor being studied
species
organisms that can breed together and produce fertile offspring
What are decomposers and what do they eat
fungi and bacteria, they break down debris
natural selection
individuals that have a specific genetic makeup to survive and adapt. (survival of the fittest)
convergent evolution
species evolve from different origins but under similar environmentalconditions to have similar traits. (they start out different and end upbecoming more similar)
divergent evolution
separation of a species into new types. (they get different)
what do scavengers eat
eat dead carcasses of larger animals
kinetic energy
the energy of motion
1st law of thermodynamics
energy is conserved; it is neither created nor destroyed under normal conditions. (the amount of energy does not change)
biotic potential
the maximum reproductive rate of an organism, given unlimited resources and ideal environmental conditions
abiotic
non-living
limiting factors
something that limits the growth or existence of an organism. ex) food, oxygen
ecocentrism philosophy
humans are part of the biological environment, not separate.
biocentric philosophy
all forms of life on earth have equal values/ rights. Centered on nature rather than humans.
anthropocentric philosophy
human issues are central to the approach and outweigh the environmental benefits.
photosynthesis
green plants capture light energy and use it to produce chemical bonds. carbon dioxide and water are consumed while oxygen and simple sugars are produced.
carbon cycle
the circulation and reutilization of carbon atoms, especially via the processes of photosynthesis and respiration.
what is natality? mortality?
birth rates. death rates.
the phosphorous cycle
the movement of phosphorous atoms from rocks through the biosphere and hydrosphere and back to rocks.
the hydrologic cycle
the natural process by which water is purified and made fresh through evaporation and precipitation. this cycle provides all the freshwater available for bilogical life.
the nitrogen cycle
the circulation and reutilization of nitrogen in both inorganic and organic phases.
R strategists
many offspring,
prey type organisms
K strategists
fewer offspring,
stable population,
predator type organisms
symbiosis
close physical interaction between 2 individuals of different species.
name the 3 types of symbiosis and what they mean
parasitism- living on or in another organism and causes harm.

commensalism- one organism may benefit, but no harm is caused.

mutualism- both species benefit from the relationship.

speciation
the development of a new species.