Environmental Biology Final

Acid Rain
Rainfall made sufficiently acidic by atmospheric pollution that causes environmental harm, typically to forests and lakes
Sanitary landfill 

Refuse is deposited and then covered with soil.  

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now

Daily application of the soil cover prevents 

spreading of flies, rats, fire, and paper.

A site for depositing garbage
wastewater effluent
Wastewater effluent is the final product of all earlier treatment processes, and it can be discharged to a stream, river, bay, lagoon or wetland
Wastewater biosolids 

Sludge that has been treated to ensure that it can be safely applied to land as a fertilizer or soil amendment

the use of microorganisms for the decontamination of soil or groundwater. usually involves injecting organisms or oxygen into contaminated zones
Coliform bacteria 

 commonly used bacterial indicator of sanitary quality of foods and water. They are defined as rod-shaped Gram-negativenon-spore forming bacteria which can ferment lactose with the production of acid and gas when incubated at 35-37°C.[1] Coliforms can be found in the aquatic environment, in soil and on vegetation; they are universally present in large numbers in the feces of warm-blooded animals

Field crops are best

Effluent can not be sprayed on fresh produce

Atmospheric inversion 
The weather phenomenon in which a layer of warm air overlies cooler air near the ground and prevents the rising and dispersion of air pollutants
Greenhouse effect

The distinctive heating effect on the Earth’s surface due to the gases and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that trap solar radiation and emit infrared radiation



A standard for measuring the amount of solid or liquid matter suspended in the atmosphere, i.e. the amount of particulate matter over 10 micrometers in diameter

Dust, Smoke

matter 2.5 is small stuff that gets deep into lungs.


(Biochemical Oxygen Demand) – ;The amount of dissolved oxygen needed by aerobic biological organisms in a body of water to break down organic material present in a given water sample at certain temperature over a specific time period

its a problem in lakes if oxygen level gets too low.

difference of two numbers he gives you;

Water Quality Act section 201;


WQA section 208;


WQA section 404;


Deals with point source pollution regulation

Deals with non-point source pollution regulation

Deals with wetland regulation




Non-point water pollution sources

Nonpoint source pollution generally results from land runoff, precipitation, atmospheric deposition, drainage, seepage or hydrologic modification. The term “nonpoint source” is defined to mean any source of water pollution that does not meet the legal definition of “point source” in section 502(14) of the Clean Water Act.


Non-point water pollutants: sources are… city streets, rural homes, cropland, animal feedlot.

Point source water pollution

: Comes from point sources that are specific, large, identifiable discharge outlets –wastewater treatment plants, industrial or factory drains.  Confined animal feeding operations (CAFO’s) of more than 1000 animal units.

Point sources water pollutants

1.  Infectious agents

a.  Bacterial diseases

     Typhoid, Cholera, Salmonellosis

b.  Viral disease  –  hepatitis

c.  Protozoa  –  amoebic dysentery


d.  Parasites  – giardia

2.  Inorganic chemicals

a.  Salts

b.  Nutrients – N and P

c.  Heavy metals – Pb, Hg, Zn, Cu, Cd.

3.  Organic chemicals

a.  Petroleum wastes and spills

b.  Pesticides

c.  Carcinogens and mutagens

4.  BOD  –  “Biochemical oxygen demand”

Decomposable organic residues

5.  Grit  –  Sand, silt, and clay


A.  Agricultural BMPs

1.  Proper manure disposal

2.  Fencing of streams

3.  Appropriate irrigation practices

4.  Erosion control

5.  Soil testing

6.  Timing and placement of fertilizer

7.  Correct pesticide usage, IPM5


B.  Forestry and recreation BMPs

Road location, avoid riparian zones

Restroom facilities and locations


C.  Construction site BMPs

Berms, catchment basins, seeding


D.  Urban area BMPs

Road salt disposal, street sweeping, 

pet waste disposal


E.  Mining BMPs  


Drainage retentions basins

Indicator organism in water

used to measure such things as potential fecal contamination of environmental samples. The presence of coliform bacteria, such as E. coli, in surface water is a common indicator of fecal contamination.


primary- remaking same material from the waste

secondary- waste materials made into different products

CO- terminal

Headaches, reduced mental alertness, heart attack, cardiovascular diseases, impaired fetal development, death.

PM-10- terminal

Eye irritation, asthma, bronchitis, lung damage, cancer, heavy metal poisoning, cardiovascular effects.


?     Small levels – nausea, irritated eyes and/or nose, fluid forming in lungs and shortness of breath

?     high levels – rapid, burning spasms; swelling of throat; reduced oxygen intake; a larger buildup of fluids in lungs and/or death

?     major respiratory problems

?     visual impairment in the area affected


 include breathing problems, respiratory illness, changes in the lung’s defences, and worsening respiratory and cardiovascular disease


Anemia, high blood pressure, brain and kidney damage, neurological disorders, cancer, lowered IQ.


Eye and throat irritation, coughing, respiratory tract problems, asthma, lung damage.


Disruption of the nervous system

– Damage to brain functions

– DNA damage and chromosomal damage

– Allergic reactions, resulting in skin rashes, tiredness and headaches

– Negative reproductive effects, such as sperm damage, birth defects and miscarriages



lung, skin, and bladder cancers


may increase the risk of lung cancer and mesothelioma


increase the risk of asbestosis


pleural plaques, pleural thickening, and benign pleural effusions


What are the sources of acid rain?

1.  Sulfur dioxide (SO2) from fossil fuel combustion and 

smelting operations forms sulfuric acid (H2SO4) in the 



2.Oxides of nitrogen (N0 and NO2) from internal 

combustion engines form nitric acid (HNO3) in the 

atmosphere. NOX

List the detrimental effects of acid deposition and steps that can be taken to deal with this problem.


1. Lakes – rise in acidity kills animal and plant life in water.

2. Forests – slower growth, injury, death of forests. Forest and soil degradation.

3. Building and artifacts – can damage surface layers of material (paint on a car)


1. Low sulfur fuels – burn low sulfur content coal = less sulfur → sulfur oxides

2. Scrubbers – are like liquid filters for the gases resulting from combustion. remove 80 -95% of sulfur oxides

What are the advantages of recycling

conserve limited resources

conserve energy

reduce volume of solid wastes


Which wastes are appropriate for land application

sewage sludge, non-sewage sludge, septage, food processing, and other solid waste


What is the fate of wastes applied to land. 

Nutrients either plant uptake, volatize into atmosphere, or wash into streams causing eutrophication.