Environmental Biology Final

Acid Rain
Rainfall made sufficiently acidic by atmospheric pollution that causes environmental harm, typically to forests and lakes
Sanitary landfill 
Refuse is deposited and then covered with soil.  Daily application of the soil cover prevents spreading of flies, rats, fire, and paper.

Dump
A site for depositing garbage
wastewater effluent
Wastewater effluent is the final product of all earlier treatment processes, and it can be discharged to a stream, river, bay, lagoon or wetland
Wastewater biosolids 
Sludge that has been treated to ensure that it can be safely applied to land as a fertilizer or soil amendment
Bioremediation
the use of microorganisms for the decontamination of soil or groundwater. usually involves injecting organisms or oxygen into contaminated zones
Coliform bacteria 
 commonly used bacterial of sanitary quality of foods and water. They are defined as rod-shaped Gram-negativenon-spore forming with the production of acid and gas when incubated at 35-37°C.[1]Field crops are bestEffluent can not be sprayed on fresh produce
Atmospheric inversion 
The weather phenomenon in which a layer of warm air overlies cooler air near the ground and prevents the rising and dispersion of air pollutants
Greenhouse effect
The distinctive heating effect on the Earth’s surface due to the gases and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that trap solar radiation and emit infrared radiation;
PM-10;
A standard for measuring the amount of solid or liquid matter suspended in the atmosphere, i.e.

the amount of particulate matter over 10 micrometers in diameterDust, Smoke

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0pt; line-height: 115%; color: #980000;”>matter 2.5 is small stuff that gets deep into lungs.

BOD;
(Biochemical Oxygen Demand) – ;The amount of dissolved oxygen needed by aerobic biological organisms in a body of water to break down organic material present in a given water sample at certain temperature over a specific time periodits a problem in lakes if oxygen level gets too low.

difference of two numbers he gives you;

Water Quality Act section 201;;WQA section 208;;WQA section 404;;
Deals with point source pollution regulationDeals with non-point source pollution regulationDeals with wetland regulation;;;
Non-point water pollution sources
Nonpoint source pollution generally results from land runoff, precipitation, atmospheric deposition, drainage, seepage or hydrologic modification. The term “nonpoint source” is defined to mean any source of water pollution that does not meet the legal definition of “point source” in section 502(14) of the Clean Water Act.

;Non-point water pollutants: sources are.

.. city streets, rural homes, cropland, animal feedlot.

Point source water pollution
Comes from point sources that are specific, large, identifiable discharge outlets –wastewater treatment plants, industrial or factory drains.

  Confined animal feeding operations (CAFO’s) of more than 1000 animal units.

Point sources water pollutants
a.

  Bacterial diseases     Typhoid, Cholera, Salmonellosisb.  Viral disease  –  hepatitis     Cryptosporidium2.

  Inorganic chemicalsa.  Saltsb.  Nutrients – N and P3.  Organic chemicals

0pt; line-height: 115%; color: fuchsia;”>b.  Pesticidesc.  Carcinogens and mutagensDecomposable organic residues

BMP
A.  Agricultural BMPs1.  Proper manure disposal2.  Fencing of streams3.

 Appropriate irrigation practices4.  Erosion control5.  Soil testing6.

 Timing and placement of fertilizer7.  Correct pesticide usage, IPM5 B.  Forestry and recreation BMPsRoad location, avoid riparian zonesRestroom facilities and locations C.  Construction site BMPsBerms, catchment basins, seeding D.  Urban area BMPsRoad salt disposal, street sweeping, pet waste disposal E.  Mining BMPs  Revegetation  Drainage retentions basins

Indicator organism in water
used to measure such things as potential fecal contamination of environmental samples.

The presence of , such as E. colisurface water is a common indicator of

0pt; line-height: 115%; color: fuchsia;”>.

Recycling
primary- remaking same material from the wastesecondary- waste materials made into different products
CO- terminal
Headaches, reduced mental alertness, heart attack, cardiovascular diseases, impaired fetal development, death.
PM-10- terminal
Eye irritation, asthma, bronchitis, lung damage, cancer, heavy metal poisoning, cardiovascular effects.
NOx
     Small levels – nausea, irritated eyes and/or nose, fluid forming in lungs and shortness of breath     high levels – rapid, burning spasms; swelling of throat; reduced oxygen intake; a larger buildup of fluids in lungs and/or death?     ?    
SO2
 include breathing problems, respiratory illness, changes in the lung’s defences, and worsening respiratory and cardiovascular disease
Pb
Anemia, high blood pressure, brain and kidney damage, neurological disorders, cancer, lowered IQ.
Ozone
Eye and throat irritation, coughing, respiratory tract problems, asthma, lung damage.
Mercury
Disruption of the nervous system– Damage to brain functions – DNA damage and chromosomal damage– Allergic reactions, resulting in skin rashes, tiredness and headaches– Negative reproductive effects, such as sperm damage, birth defects and miscarriages 
Hydrocarbons 
Asbestos
may increase the risk of lung cancer and mesothelioma increase the risk of asbestosis pleural plaques, pleural thickening, and benign pleural effusions 
What are the sources of acid rain?
1.  Sulfur dioxide (SO2) from fossil fuel combustion and smelting operations forms sulfuric acid (H2SO4) in the atmosphere. 2.Oxides of nitrogen (N0 and NO2) from internal combustion engines form nitric acid (HNO3) in the atmosphere. NOX
Impacts:1.

Lakes – rise in acidity kills animal and plant life in water.2. Forests – slower growth, injury, death of forests. Forest and soil degradation.1. Low sulfur fuels – burn low sulfur content coal = less sulfur → sulfur oxides

What are the advantages of recycling
conserve limited resourcesconserve energyreduce volume of solid wastes 
Which wastes are appropriate for land application
sewage sludge, non-sewage sludge, septage, food processing, and other solid waste 
What is the fate of wastes applied to land. 
Nutrients either plant uptake, volatize into atmosphere, or wash into streams causing eutrophication.    
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