Environmental Legislation/Agreements

Atomic Energy Act (AEA)
Provides for the development and regulation of the uses of nuclear materials and facilities in the US.
Clean Air Act (CAA)
Established primary and secondary air quality standards. Required states to develop implementation plans. Sets limits and goals to reduce mobile source air pollution and ambient air quality standards.
Clean Water Acts (CWA)
Regulates and enforces all discharge into water sources and wetland deconstruction/construction.
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation Liability Act (CERCLA Superfund)
Established federal authority for emergency response and clean-up of hazardous substances that have been spilled, improperly disposed, or released into the environment
Consumer Product Safety Act (CPSA)
Purpose is to protect the public against unreasonable risks of injury associated with consumer products.

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITIES)
Controls the exploitation of endangered species through international legislation. Bans hunting, capturing and selling of threatened species and bans the import of ivory.
Emergency Planning & Community Right-To-Know Act (EPCRA)
Requires reporting of toxic releases: the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI); Encourages response for chemical releases
Endangered Species Act (ESA)
Protects species that are considered to be threatened or endangered. Includes migratory birds and their habitats.
Energy Policy Act (EPA)
The Act originally publicizes radiation protection standards for the Yucca Mountain repository.
Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA)
Authorizes the president to draw from the petroleum reserve as well as established a permanent home-heating oil reserve in the Northeast. Clarifies when the president can draw from these resources.

Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDA)
Assures the safety, wholesomeness, efficacy, and truthful packaging and labeling of food, drugs, cosmetics, and medical devices.
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)
Requires that all pesticides are registered and approved by the FDA and creates a pesticide registry.
Federal Water Pollution Control Act (FWPCA)
Authorized the surgeon general of the Public Health Service, with others, to prepare comprehensive programs for eliminating or reducing the pollution of interstate waters and tributaries and improving the sanitary condition of surface and underground waters.
Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA)
Set pesticide limits in food, & all active and inactive ingredients must be screened for estrogenic/endocrine effects
Hardrock Mining and Reclamation (HMA)
The bill provides that the secretary of the interior will establish a royalty rate of from 2% to 5% of the value of locatable mineral production from any new mines on federal mineral lands.
Hazardous Material Transportation Act (HAZMAT)
Governs the transportation of hazardous materials and wastes.
International Environmental Protection Act (IEPA)
Authorized the president to assist countries in protecting and maintaining wildlife habitat and provides an active role in conservation by the Agency for International Development.
Kyoto Protocol (KP)
Agreement among 150 nations requiring greenhouse gas emission reduction.

Lacey Act (LA)
A conservation law prohibiting the transportation of illegally captured or prohibited animals across state lines. It was the first federal law protecting wildlife, and is still in effect, though it has been revised several times. Today the law is primarily used to prevent the importation or spread of potentially dangerous non-native species.
Law of the Sea Convention (LOSC)
International agreement that sets rules for the use of the world’s oceans, which cover 70 percent of the Earth’s surface.

Low Level Radioactive Policy Act (LLRPA)
All states must have facilities to handle low level radioactive wastes
Madrid Protocol
Moratorium on mineral exploration for 50 years in Antarctica
Marine Plastic Pollution Research and Control Act (MPPRCA)
Regulates the dumping of wastes into oceans and coastal waters
Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act (MBHSA)
Requires purchase of a stamp by waterfowl hunters. Revenue generated is used to acquire wetlands. Since its inception, the program has resulted in the protection of approximately 4.

5 million acres (18,000 km?) of waterfowl habitat.

Mining Act of 1872 (MA)
United States federal law that authorizes and governs prospecting and mining for economic minerals, such as gold, platinum, and silver, on federal public lands.
Montreal Protocol (MP)
Banned the production of aerosols and initiated the phase out of all CFC’s.

National Appliance Energy Act (NAEA)
Set minimum efficiency standards for numerous categories of appliances.
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
Authorized the Council on Environmental Quality as the oversight board for general conditions; directs federal agencies to take environmental consequences into account in decision making; requires EIP statement be prepared for every major federal project having environmental impact.
National Park Act (NPA)
Created Yosemite and Yellowstone National Parks.
Noise Control Act (NCA)
Promotes a national environment free from noise that jeopardizes health and welfare.

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Establishes research, noise standards, and information dissemination.

Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA)
Established a site to identify for, and construct, an underground repository for spent nuclear reactor fuel and high-level radioactive waste from federal defense programs.
Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
Created to protect worker and health.

Its main aim was to ensure that employers provide their workers with an environment free from dangers to their safety and health, such as exposure to toxic chemicals, excessive noise levels, mechanical dangers, heat or cold stress, or unsanitary conditions.

Ocean Dumping Act (ODA)
Makes it unlawful for any person to dump or transport for the purpose of dumping sewage, sludge, or industrial waste into ocean waters.
Oil Pollution Act (OPA)
It states “A company cannot ship oil into the United States until it presents a plan to prevent spills that may occur. It must also have a detailed containment and cleanup plan in case of an oil spill emergency.

Pollution Prevention Act (PPA)
Requires facilities to reduce pollution at its source. Reduction can be in volume or toxicity.
Quiet Communities Act (QCA)
Provides for the coordination of federal research and activities in noise control.

Authorized FAA funds for development of noise abatement plans around airports.

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
Management of non-hazardous and hazardous solid waste including landfills and storage tanks. Set minimal standards for all waste disposal facilities and for hazardous wastes.
Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is allowed to set the standards for drinking water quality and oversees all of the states, localities, and water suppliers who implement these standards
Soil and Water Conservation Act (SWCA)
Provides for a continuing appraisal of US soil, water, and related resources, including fish and wildlife habitats, and a soil and water conservation program to assist landowners.

Soil Conservation Act (SCA)
Established the soil conservation service, which deals with soil erosion problems, carries out soil surveys, and does research on soil salinity.
Solid Waste Disposal Act (SWDA)
To find better and more efficient ways to dispose of solid waste; promotes shredding and separation of waste and burning of remaining materials to produce stream or generate electricity; promotes recycling.
Stockholm Declaration (SD)
United Nations Conference on Human Environment having considered the need for a common outlook and principles to inspire and guide the peoples of the world in the preservation and enhancement of the human environment.

Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA)
Requires restoration of abandoned mines.
Taylor Grazing Act (TGA)
A United States federal law that regulates grazing on federal public land. The Secretary of the Interior has the authority to handle all of the regulations, and he became responsible for establishing grazing districts. Before these districts are created there must be a hearing held by the state.
Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)
EPA is given the ability to track the 75,000 industrial chemicals currently produced or imported into the United States. EPA repeatedly screens these chemicals and can require reporting or testing of those that may pose an environmental or human-health hazard. EPA can ban the manufacture and import of those chemicals that pose an unreasonable risk.
Water Resources Planning Act (WRPA)
Provides for a plan to formulate and evaluate water and related land resources.
Wild and Scenic Rivers Act (WSRA)
Selected rivers in the United States are preserved for possessing outstandingly, remarkable scenic, recreational, geologic, fish and wildlife, historic, cultural, or other similar values.
Wilderness Act (WA)
Allowed congress to set aside federally owned land for preservation.