Environmental Science



What is advection? 


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the movement of water through the atmosphere 


What does BOD stand for? 


biological oxygen demand 


What percentage of water is used in the bathroom of a typical home? 




How many gallons of water are used in the U.S. each day? 


40 billion gallons 


What percentage of industrial water use is for cooling? 




What are the 5 horizons in soil profiling? 


1. O Horizon 

2. A Horizon

3. B Horizon

4. C Horizon

5. R Horizon 


What type of soil has

  • no drainage
  • no air capacity
  • high water capacity
  • high nutrient capacity 




What is loam? 


a mixture of soil that is suitable for growing plants 


At what precentage must ground cover be mainained at to prevent the detatchment of soil particles?




What number on the pH scale is both neutral and sweet?




What product is most commonly recycled?




How many tons of trash are produced yearly in the US?


210 million tons


What is the difference between a dump and a landfill? 


A dump is a hole in the ground that is filled with trash

A landfill is a planned structure built into the ground that isolates the trash from the environment


What is the percentage of trash that is burned in the US?




List two methods used to monitor ground water around a landfill.


1. test the water temperature

2. test the water pH level


List two advantages and two disadvantages to wind power


1. wind is free

2. the wind turbine energy doesn’t cause pollution



1. wind strength is not consistant (un-reliable)

2. wind turbines are noisy


What are three factors that affect the power output of a wind turbine?


1. wind speed

2. blade diameter

3. height of the wind turbine


What are groups of large turbines called?


wind farms or wind plants


What area of the US is most ideal for wind power use?


coastal areas


Name three government incentives to increase the use of wind power.


1. production tax credit

2. renewable energy credits

3. installation tax credits


What is the ‘capacity factor’?


the percentage of time a power plant is active


How much does geothermal energy production cost in the US per year?


$1.5 billioin


What is the temperature of the center of the earth?


6,000 degrees Celsius


How do some countries use geothermal energy?


for cooking and heating


Where does the name ‘geothermal’ come from?


two Greek words: ;geo; (earth) and ;thermal; (heat)


List two methods of soil conservation


1. soil erosion control

2. nutrient retention


What is bioenergy and how can it be used?


bionenergy is the use of organic material to produce energy such as heat, fuel, and electricity


What are three types of biomass?


1. municipal, animal, and industrial waste

2. soybeans, corn, sugar cane

3. wood chips ; saw dust


What are two advantages of using bioenergy?


1. bioenergy does not contribute to global warming

2. it reduces, reuses, and recylces biomass (environmentally friendly)


Up to what percentage of coal-energy can be replaced by bioenergy?