Environmental Science

The work of an ecologist is best described as a study of:
interactions between organisms and their environment
Define the carry capacity.
The maximum number of a certain species that can live in a given area without damaging their habitat
What is an ecosystem?
a functional unit or region, its physical conditions and the interactions between the plants and animal that inhabit the area
Population explosions occur if species are introduced to a new environment and:
there are no limiting factors
wildlife biologists estimate that there are about 12,000 white-tailed deer in Carbon County. This number represents the:
population
define biosphere
the region of planet Earth that supports life
which of the following is a self-sustaining ecosystem?
a) a northern coniferous forest
b) a farm
c) a golf course
d) a model of a tropical rainforest
a. a northern coniferous forest
if you were a fish, wildlife, and parks biologist hired to take a census of equine species grazing on leased federal land, you should count horses and mules as
two different populations because they are different species
a good habitat must meet all of the basic needs of a species. Disease may spread quickly and become a limiting factor for a growing population if there is a lack of
space
What is the only biome where permafrost is found?
tundra
All ecosystems must have a supply of water and…
energy
Habitat fragmentation:
a) affects the weather (e.g. wind) conditions within the ecosystem
b) provides predators with easier access to prey
c) creates edges which isolate populations and may interfere with breeding
d) all of the above
d) all of the above
predators are:
a) carnivores
b) decomposers
c) herbivores
d) producers
a) canivores
an organism that can make food from chemicals that are not food (carbon dioxide and water) is a:
producer
the first organism in the food chain must always be a :
producer
An organism, such as a leech, that lives in or on a host organism is a:
parasite
An Indian pipe is a small flowering plant that is completely white and grows on rotting plant material on the forest floor. It is a:
decomposer
Animals, like the California Condors, that feed on the remains of dead animals are:
scavengers
Which of the following is not a consumer?
a) carnivore
b) herbivore
c) omnivore
d) producer
d) producer
The diet of this animal includes many small animals but no plants. The niche of the animal is:
carnivore
the term predator describes the:
niche of an animal
The process that changes light energy into chemical energy is:
photosynthesis
The high-energy compound made by photosynthesis that provides an immediate source of energy for a plant is:
sugar
the total mass of all organic matter at any level in a food chain is called the:
biomass
a diagram showing the pyramid of biomass in an ecosystem is represented by a stack of boxes:
that increase in size from top to bottom
At each higher level in a food chain:
there is less energy available to organisms
Which of the following food chaise supports the most people? a food chain with:
a) two steps
b) three steps
c) four steps
d) five steps
a) one step
In countries with large populations and limited space for growing food, the major food in the diet will be:
producers
Clouds are formed when the correct conditions allow this process:
condensation
All organic compounds contain
carbon
This gas is important waste product of photosynthesis.
oxygen
What plant is classified as a legume and has nitrogen-fixing bacteria in nodules in its roots?
soybeans
Most water enters the air through the process of
evaporation
Plants and animals need to make:
proteins
Humans remove minerals and other natural resources from an ecosystem faster than the resources are replaced. This is called:
mining
Most of the oxygen in the atmosphere is produced by what organism?
algaw
when nitrogen is “fixed” it is changed into:
a form of fertilizer in the soil that can be used by plants
The best way to reduce the damage caused by plant-eating pests is to:
provide protection for the predators of the plant-eating pests
predators play an important role in a balanced ecosystem because they:
are a limiting factor for populations of certain species
As the populations of predators increase, the population of their prey will…
decrease
Which of the following animals is not a predator:
a) coyote
b) earthworm
c) human
d) robin
b) earthworm
a bounty is paid for:
predators
What did the Pittman-Robertson Act do?
it provided money for wildlife management
To calculate the amount of game that can be harvested, what two things must be taken into account?
1. carrying capacity of the ecosystem
2. population density
What helps to maintain a balance between the population of a species and the carrying capacity of an ecosystem?
regulated hunting
The smell of paint in a newly painted bedroom is due to what?
vaporization
The major process that produces most air pollution is:
combustion
In Beijing, China, harmful levels of this major air pollutant are produced during the winter months.
sulfur dioxide
This chemical is necessary for complete combustion
oxygen
A pesticide is sprayed on trees in an orchard. The process in which the liquid is broken into fine droplets that enter the air is:
attrition
Huge clouds of this harmful gas are emitted during volcanic eruptions.
sulfur dioxide
The killer cloud of gas that hung over the Meuse Valley contained deadly amounts of this gas which combined with water vapor to produce breathable acid.
sulfur dioxide
What is the major source of air pollution in Los Angeles?
motor vehicles
Which of these processes is/are responsible for Volatile Organic Compounds polluting the air?
a) attrition
b) combustion
c) vaporization
d) both a and c
d) both a and c
Volatile Organic Compounds are chemicals that:
contain carbon
What group or organisms did Roget Tory Peterson consider to be the best indicator of a healthy environment?
bird
Manufacturers are changing the chemical composition of aerosol sprays to reduce the amount of this pollutant that enters the air from consumer products.
Volatile Organic Compounds
What chemical is the brownish-red gas present in photochemical smog?
nitrogen dioxide
What hydrocarbon is a major air pollutant produced at sewage treatment plants and landfills during the decomposition of organic waste?
methane
The level of ozone present in an area depends upon which of these variables:
a) amount of traffic
b) temperature
c) amount of sunshine
d) all of the above
d) all of the above
Which of the following compounds is seldom found in amounts that make it harmful to human health?
a) carbon dioxide
b) carbon monoxide
c) nitrogen dioxide
d) sulfur dioxide
a) carbon dioxide
The majority of this pollutant is produced by gasoline-powered motor vehicles.
carbon monoxide
According to the American Lung Association Air Quality Assessment, The Dallas-Fort Worth area has good “{grades” in all pollutant concentrations except:
ozone
Produced by agriculture, industries and traffic, this type of air pollutant is classified by size.
particulate matter
According to the EPA, the air pollutant that is the most damaging to crops and costs farmers millions of dollars by reducing yields is:
ozone
The air condition that caused the pollutants to reach unhealthy levels during the major air pollution disasters was:
temperature inverson
The smog that filled the cities during the air pollution disasters was deadly because the moisture in the air combined with an air pollutant to form this potent irritant.
sulfuric acid
the major source of pollutants that entered the air during the major air pollution disasters was the burning of:
coal
The group of people who are the most likely to develop a severe case of emphysema is:
smokers who live in cities
When it combines with hemoglobin, this pollutant decreases the ability of blood to carry oxygen.
carbon monoxide
Cell division increases rapidly and the cells produced do not function as normal lung cells in this respiratory disease.
lung cancer
Which of the following people would most likely be hospitalized during an air pollution disaster?
a) a child with asthma
b) a healthy teen with near perfect attendance
c) a 30-yr-old man who gets headaches
d) an active retiree
a) a child with asthma
People who are exposed to carcinogens can develop:
lung cancer
Damage to the cilia and production of excess mucus that result in a “smoker’s cough” are symptoms of:
chronic bronchitis
Most abundant gas in Earth’s atmosphere
nitrogen
Source of energy that splits oxygen molecules in the atmosphere
lightning
Makes up 21% of the Earth’s atmosphere
oxygen
Force thet holds gases near Earth’s surface
gracity
Layer of atmosphere nearest Earth’s surface
troposphere
Layer of atmosphere that contains the ozone layer
stratosphere
A naturally-occurring gas that destroys oxone
nitric oxide
Replaced methyl chloride as a coolant in refrigerators
CFCs
Most deadly ultra violet light rays
UV-C
Type of CFC use banned in US, Canada, and some European countries
aerosols
Define pollutant
a substance that is present in amounts that are unwanted or harmful
Identify 3 processes that pollute the atmosphere
1) attrition
2) vaporization
3) combustion
What pollution process is responsible for most odors?
vaporization
The fine droplets of aerosol sprays are a form of what pollution process?
attrition
What are the major air pollutant in Los Angeles?
ground level ozones and carbon monoxide
What are the 6 major air pollutants?
1) ground level ozones
2) sulfur dioxide
3) carbon monoxide
4) nitrogen oxides
5) lead
6) particulate matter
What are pesticides?
poisons that eliminate pests and diesases
What unit is Dissolved Oxygen (DO) measured in?
parts per million (ppm)
What is the name of the test used to determine DO?
winkler titration
At what measurement of DO can bass no longer survive in area lakes?
5 ppm
What is DO saturation measured in?
percentage
What is the test to measure how much solid matter is suspended in water?
turbidity
What tool is used to measure how far light penetrates below the water’s surface?
secchi disk
What body of water is most susceptible to temperature change?
river
What color of water indicates the presence of excess nutrients released in the water?
green
At what pH can fish no longer survive in water?
3
What is an example of non-point source pollution?
acid rain