Environmental Science test 2

a group of organisms of the same species that live in the same area.
a social science that applies the principles of population ecology to the study of statistical change in human population (the study of human population)
the number of individuals within a population per unit area.
The relative numbers of organisms of each age within a population.
The proportion of males to females in a population
the arrival of individuals from outside a population
the departure of individuals from a population.
the average number of children born per female member of a population during her lifetime
the total fertility rate that maintains a stable population size.

the rate of change in a population size resulting from birth and death rates alone, excluding migrates
A theoretical model of economic and cultural change that explains the declining death rates and birth rates that occurred in Western nations as they became industrialized.
What factors lead to increased population?
technological innovations, improved sanitation, better medical care, incresed agricultural output, and other a tors that have led to a dexline in death rates, particularly a drop in rates of infant mortality.
why do some people say that increased numbers of humans is not a problem?
human intelligence is a resource
What do other people say about quality of life and resources with increased human population size?
people cant leave comfortably
Describe the I=PAT formula and its various inputs (the P,A,T)
Describe human population growth through time and the effects of this growth on the environment.  What are future population projections?
people are living longer so the poplation is booming and it doubles each decade 
How does population distribution affect the environment? 
too many clumped in one area causes damaging
Describe the implications for an “expanding” population histogram vs. a stable histogramWhat does population growth depend on?  How has technology affected population growth?
population growth depends on birth and immigration
How do immigration and emigration affect local populations?
immigration adds to the population and emigration takes away from the population
Although growth rates are declining around the world, fertility rates are still very high in some countries.  Why is this dangerous?
Describe the demographic transition, its 4 stages and whether it will work for developing countries
the demographic transition is a model of economical and cultural change that explained the declining death and birth rates in Western nations as they became industrialized
Describe the demographic transition, its 4 stages and whether it will work for developing countries
How are poverty and population growth related?
How do wealthy nations affect the environment, although they may not have as many people? How does the “wealth gap” cause conflict?
Compare traditional with industrialized agriculture
What is the relationship between poverty and food? 
Describe how soil is formed through the various types of weathering
Which soil layer is most fertile?
Why is soil erosion such a global problem?
Why is desertification such a global problem?  What was the Dust Bowl?
Describe how the following methods conserve farmland:  crop rotation, contour farming, terracing, intercropping, shelterbelts, reduced tillage
Describe the problems associated with irrigation (waterlogging, salinization) and fertilizers
What are causes and consequences of overgrazing?
Describe the problems of undernourishment, malnutrition and overnourishment.  What is food security, and have we increased or decreased global hunger?
Describe the benefits and costs of the green revolution
Describe some types of pesticides, and a major problem with resistance
Discuss IPM, and what is included in this method of agriculture
What are the issues facing GMO’s?  What are the benefits and costs?  How would people argue for the “precautionary principle” regarding GMOs?
Describe a CAFO; why do some people have problems with “factory farming”? What are benefits and drawbacks to this type of livestock raising?  What is a sustainable solution regarding eating meat?
Describe some benefits and drawbacks regarding aquaculture
What is the prognosis for “organic” foods? What are the benefits?  How does Community-supported agriculture work?
What are genetic, species and ecosystem diversity, and why are they important?
  What is the Latitudinal Gradient, and why does it occur?
Why isn’t it easy to know how many species are on Earth?
Describe previous mass extinctions, and why this one (the 6th) is fundamentally different from the others.

Describe in detail these causes of biodiversity loss: habitat alteration, invasive species, human population growth, pollution, overharvesting, consumption and climate change
Know and be able to discuss WHY we need to conserve biodiversity (environmental and economic reasons)
What is the argument behind the belief that we have an ethical obligation to conserve species?
What is conservation biology, and what does it try to do?
What happens to extinction and colonization on islands that are close vs. far away from the mainland, and on large vs. small islands?
Why is the Endangered Species Act so controversial?
What is captive breeding and what are some advantages & disadvantages of it?
What is a biodiversity hotspot, and why is it important?
How does community-based conservation work? What is its major problem?
What are the trends regarding urbanization worldwide? Where are the fastest growing cities?
Why do people move to the suburbs?
What is urban sprawl, and why is it problematic?
Understand the role of city and regional planning activities, zoning, Urban Growth Boundaries, and new urbanism, in relation to smart growth.  What are the major principles of smart growth?
What role does mass transportation play in sustainable cities? Describe some mass transit systems, their advantages and problems
How do open spaces enhance urban living? 
What problems with light and noise pollution occur in cities?
Describe some goals of sustainable urban areas.
Compare and contrast maximum sustained yield vs. ecosystem-based and adaptive management when dealing with resources
Describe some ecological and economic values of forests
What is the problem with deforestation?  Where is it occurring? What happens to loggers’ jobs?
Why was a U.S.

National forest system implemented in the U.S.? Who manages these forests?

Describe the 4 major types of logging, and some environmental impacts
What is the multiple use policy for forests?  Which use, realistically, is paramount?
What is the role of prescribed fires in forest management?  Why are they controversial?
What is salvage logging, and how can it be abused?
What does the Bureau of Land Management do?
What is the foremost goal for U.

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S. Parks? National Reserves?

Who administers National Parks and National Wildlife Refuges? What activities are allowed in each?
What is special about Wilderness areas?  Why are they controversial? What has happened to these areas in recent years?
What is special about Wilderness areas?  Why are they controversial? What has happened to these areas in recent years?
Describe a World Heritage Area.  Describe a biosphere reserve.
What is habitat fragmentation and how does it threaten species?
Describe the SLOSS dilemma.

How do wildlife corridors work?

Describe 4 types of hazards and give examples of each
Discuss the impact of diseases, and whether they are increasing or decreasing
Describe 4 indoor health hazards?
What does environmental toxicology do?  Why is it important?
What did Silent Spring do for the issue of environmental toxicants?
Describe various toxicants (i.e. carcinogens, neurotoxins, etc.), and their effects
What are endocrine disruptors and why are they important?  Give some examples of organisms that have been affected
Describe the problems with persistence, bioaccumulation and biomagnifications regarding toxicants
What types of human studies are conducted?
Describe a dose-response curve.  What is LD50?  An LE50? What happens below the threshold of response?
What makes individuals respond differently to toxins?
Describe acute vs.

chronic exposure.  How do they affect responses?

What are synergistic effects of toxins?
Discuss the concept of risk assessment, and how we perceive risk
What is risk management?  Compare the two approaches for determining safety (innocent until proven guilty, precautionary principle approach); which one protects the public better?
Who regulates toxic substances in the U.S.?
Environmental health
environmental factors that influence human health and quality of life and the health of ecological systems essential to environmental quality and long-term human well-being
a substance that acts as a poison to humans or wildlife
the scientific field that examines the effects of poisonous chemicals and other agents onhumnas and other organisms
Acute vs. chronic exposure
the degree of harm a chemical substance can inflict
Risk analysis
the shift from rural to city and suburban living.
a smaller community that rings a city
the professional pursuit that attempts to design cities in such a way as to maximize their efficiency, functionality, and beauty.

the practice of classifying areas for different types of development and land use
Light rail
new urbanism
a school of thought among architects, planners, and developers that seeks to design neighborhoods in which homes, businesses, schools, and other amenities are within walking distance of another.
noise pollution
light pollution
resource management
Strategic decison making about who should extract resources and in what ways, so that resources are used wisely and not wasted
maximum sustainable yield
the maximal harvest of a particular renewable natural resource that can be accomplished while still keeping the resuorce available for the future.
the clearing and loss of forests
primary forest
U.SForest Service 
Helathy Forest RestorationAct
the impulse to protect enormous, unusual, or beautiful natural features
antiquities act 
a loose confederation of individuals and groups that coalesced in the 1980s and 1990s as a response to the increasing success of environmental advocacy
national forests 
public lands consisting of 191 million acres in many tracts spread across all but a few states
national park service 
paper parks
populations of a species that occur in different geographic areas and vary from one another in some characteristics
the disappearance of an entire species from the face of the earth.

the disappearance of a particular population from a given area, butr not the entire species globally.
thered list
a phenomenom that E.O Wilson had defined as "the connections that human beings subconsciously seek with the rest of life."
minimum viablepopulation
equilibriumtheoryof island 
a theory that was initially applied to oceanic islands to explain how species come to be distributed among them.
 the sum total of all organisms in an area, taking into account the diversity of species, their genes, their populations, and their communities.

species at Risk Act
the practice of capturing members of threatened and endangered species so that their young can be bred and raised in controlled environments and subsequently reintroduced into the wild
umbrella species
a species for which meetin its habitat needs automatically helps meet those of many other species.
flagship services
a species that has wide appeal with the public and that can be used to promote conservation efforts that also benefit othe less charismatic services.
biodiversity hotspots
an area that supports an especially great diversity of species, particularly species that are endemic to the area.

a graph showing how number of species varies withthe geographic area of a landmass or water body.
community-based conservation
the practice of engaging local people to protect land and wildlife in their own region.
the practice of cultivationg soil, producing crops, and raising livestock for human use and consumption
Land that humans use to raise plants for food and fiber.
Land used for grazing livestock
a complex plant-supporting system consisting of disintegrated rock, organic matter, air, water, nutrients, and microorganisms.
industialized agriculture
a form of agriculture that uses large-scale mechanization and fossil fuel combustion, enabling farmers to replace horses and oxen with faster and more powerful means of cultivating, harvesting, transporting, and processing crops.

an intensification of the industrialization of agriculture in the developing world in the latter half of the 20th century that has dramatically increased crop yields prodduced per unit area of farmland
the physical, chemical, and biological processes that break down rocks and minerals, turning large particles
soil horizon
that portion of the soil that is most nutritive for plants and is thus of the most direct importance to ecosytems and to agriculture.
the process by which solid materials such as minerals are dissolved in a liquid (usually water) and transported to another location.
drip irrigation
food security
an adequate, reliable, and available food supply to all people at all times
the uniform planting of a single crop over a large area
evolutionary armsrace
a duel of escalating adaptations between species
biological control
the attempt to battle pests and weeds with organisms that prey on or parasitize them, rather than by using pesticides
integrated pest management
the use of multiple techniques in combination to achieve long-term suppression of pests, including biocontrol, use of pesticides, close monitoring of populations, habitat alteration, crop rotation, transgenic crops, alternative tillage methods, and mechanical pest removal
any process scientists use to manipulate an organism’s genetic material in the lab by adding, deleting, or changing segments of its DNA.
the idea that one should not undertake a new action until the ramification
a storehouse for samples of the world’s crop diversity
concentrated animalfeeding
a huge barn or outdoor pen designed to deliver energy-rich food to animals living at extrmely high densities
the raising of aquatic organisms for food in controlled environments
agriculture that does not deplete soils faster than they form
organic agriculture
agriculture that uses no synthetic fertilizers or pesticides but instead relies on bilogical approaches such as compsting and biocontrol
community-supported agriculture