Environmental Studies 135A

Law of the Indies
First legislation in the Americas- Spanish creed, applied to US and Philippines. attempted to regulate the interaction between natives and settlers. included a lot of different laws. 1573
Tidewater Colonies
includes Jamestown and Plymouth – the European “fortress/village” concept, surrouned by communal farmland.
William Penn and Philadelphia
1682- “preplanned community development” based upon grid system
The Georgia Colony
The plan for Savannah, Region to Ward? (1733) — the city was saved from the north after the war, still in tact.
The land ordinance of 1785: Survey of the Public Domain
Settlment of the west in an organized fashion- the government sold plots in a rectangle out west. encouraged economic growth, as well as established orderly development. settlers could resell part of their land. also important for public education.
Rapid Expansion: The Railroad
The Railroad: Symbol of progress: in 1830 there were 23 miles of railroad, by 1840 there were 2300. Manifest Destiny/ the Goddess Liberty– pushing into the unknown.
Rapid Expansion: Themes:
Immigration, Migration and technology

a transformation

Housing Reform and Urban Park Movement
“To what extent was community control over private actions necessary to create and preserve a satisfactory environment?” Housing structure, “the railroad plan, 225 people living on size of a football field, cities missing out on open space (began to build parks and based the structure on cemetery plans with curvy streets/paths) Central Park served as a template, everyone wanted one after them.
Fishman: Fifth Migration (we’re talking 1990’s ish)
Downtown Reubranism: The community elites taking interest in their downtown and setting up sky scrapers that allow for economic growth and for the specialized corporations (think law firms) to be able to thrive.

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Immigrant Re-urbanism: the 1965 Immigration Act. Immigrants supported downtown reurbanism by the filling the low paying positions. Became almost like dormitories for cheap service providers – not so much the case anymore, many immigrants now move directly to the suburbs.

Black Reurbanism: Migration from the southern cities to northern city– good because they fill a lot of the innercity jobs although it was a kind of rough road

White-middle class reurbanism: the “urban experience”, walking life, etc. less of a difference between affluent and middle class, unslumming neighborhoods, babyboomers migrating to the cities and their 20 something year old children rejecting urban life.

The Post Civil War Era
Company Towns/ First Suburb

affluence created a desire to live in the first ring of the suburbs, owners of factories moved out and rode railroads- first time railroads are commuter

company towns rich company owners design and create their own ompany town (ex. Pullman, Illinois_

1870s ish- telephone, elevated railroad tracks, railcars in SF- creative genius begins

Fredrick Law Olmstead
designer of Central Park & big on city planning having to do with santiation in the late 1800s
1901 Tenement Act
big milestone in housing reform, pushed for a reform for low income housing

(the tradition of municipal movement .. tree planting, etc and the municipal art movement also big)

The Rebirth of American Urban Planning
inspired in large part by the Chicago World Fair of 1893- world fairs = temporary design… became the evolution of city planning part II
The City Beautiful Movement
Physical order = social order….
created beauty for the public good – civic virtue
inspired largely by Chicago World Fair 1893

SF (1905), the cities didnt issue reuests for proposal, it was organized by private clubs like the builders club, etc. Beming-> tried to plan for rebuild after earthquakes but was ignored

Chicago- 1909 granddaddy: Daniel Berning & Co had chicago plan, plan represented colonial town plan , cars were on the scene, they had laces to drive, movers & shakers wanting places to drive – they created the plan, hierarchy.

Potential Test Q: What are the components of a plan done during the city beautiful movement?
civic centers, public buildings, parks, streets
what do they share? public institution, public domain– missing private domain
who paid for this? The movers and shakers, land owners making things happen – own railroads, cattle industry, etc.
people with this much power appreciated the design of a great building
The “city practical” (or city efficient) era
more into city infrastructure and land use
– The New York City Zoning Plan (1916) – granddaddy to the zoning plan, although Los Angeles City is one of the first to have zoning plan too

zoning- what kind of land use, heights, etc.

NY- have numbers, number mean height of building- they can be twice the height of the building- the street needs to be able to maintain the capacity of the inhabitants,

The Birth of the American Automobile Culture
starting to get into the fourth migration, by 1916 4.7 million registered cars.. system of blue 2 plane concrete roads from 1916 effort
Milestones in American Planning
State Enabling Legislation (1922, revised in 1928) Models, first zoning models, cities adopt zoning ordinances – the organization and power of the planning commission- adopting a master plan, the physical development o fthe terrirotry, provsion for adoption of a master stree plan, provision for approval of all public imporvements, control of private subdivision of land, provision for the establishment of a regional planning commission and a regional plan

Euclid vs. Ambler Realty (1926)- first surpeme court case dealing with justice- ambler realty wanted to industrialize/ use land, town of Euclid fought. Euclid won.

First Suburbs for the Motor Age
Radburn N.J.- important idea because it attempts to build the automobile into suburbs.. some regional planning, super block & then open spaces
Planning 1930-1950 – great depression WWII..
cities lose sense of power, federal government has power.. or power to print money at least.

FDR, new deal.. infrastructure, dams, trails, parks all built. TVA (tennessee valley), came in built dams, flood control, etc. Regional planning, close to it. a lot of people work in planning during great depression..

new housing developments S.F. War Housing, Fishhook, Maryland

1950- 1970 “The exploding metropolis” and birth of modern suburbia
after the war was over, poisted to take off. Marshall Plan- rebuilt Germany but also gave us an oversees buyer, G.I. Bill- all college degree financed, huge demand for houses- started encouraging development… houses couldn’t be built quick enough.
Evacuate cities during H-Bomb scares, planning to flee, freeway became grwoth inducers we hadnt though about traffic yet, elementary schools as centers, suburbia brings commercial to suburbia.
Since 1970: The battle over sprawl and evolving alternatives
urban renewal, housing, environmental awareness, activism, growth management, smart growth, new urbanism, sustainable development, new suburbanism, smog, backyard incinerators