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” “protect all from the vandalism of a few.” Walden
Served in US Forest Service. Pioneered the field of game management. Regulated hunting used to maintain proper balance of wildlife.
Outlined dangers of pesticides in Silent Spring, 1962.
“We often blame the poor for destroying the environment. But often it is the powerful, even governments…”
Pragmatic resource conservation.
Conservationist. Forest management. “The earth and its resources belong of right to its people.”
An interdisciplinary area of study that includes both applied and theoretical aspects of human impact on the world.
A group of interacting species along with their environment.
The view that right and wrong are to be determined from within a particular society or culture.
Ethical theory stating human life is the most important aspect of this existance; everything around is a resource for humans.
cost benefit analysis
A model that helps to predict when it pays to act.
sequestration of carbon by forests; filtration of water through the hydrological cycle; soil erosion control by wild grasses.
conversion of C6H12O6(sugar) and oxygen to CO2, water, and energy
conversion of CO2, water, and solar energy (through chlorophyll) to C6H12O6 (sugar) and oxygen
American Society for Testing and Materials sets international standards for products.
“ASTM standards are used around the world to improve product quality, enhance safety, facilitate market access and trade, and build consumer confidence.”
EPA’s Design for the Environment program helps consumers, businesses, and institutional buyers identify cleaning and other products that perform well, are cost-effective, and are safer for the environment.
Point at which there is little or no significant health or environmental risk.
The use of facts and assumptions to estimate the probability of harm to human health or the environment that may result from exposures to specific pollutants, toxic agents, or management decisions.
Naturally occurring substances that can be utilized by people but may not be economic.
amount of a good or service available to be purchased
amount of a product that consumers are willing and able to buy at various prices
substance with measurable mass and volume
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
atom/s which have gained or lost an electron
which individuals in a species select more effectively, results in characteristic changes within a species.
competitive exclusion principle
No two species will occupy the same niche and compete for the same resources for long.
total role an organism plays in its ecosystem
where an organism lives
organism group that can breed and produce offspring capable of reproduction
tiny particles of organic material that result from feces or decomposition
detrital food chain
decomposers convert detritus into useful resources for larger organisms, who excrete and die, producing resources for detritus decomposers.
human well being
1) resources people have2) how people feel about their lives3) what people are able to be and do
Rio, 1992, Agenda 21: policy statements on sustainable development; Rio Declaration on Environment and Development; Statement of Principles for the Sustainable Management of Forests. UN monitors progress.
all environmental responsibility is derived from human interests alone
all forms of life have a right to exist; some recognize hierarchy
environment deserves direct moral consideration, as opposed to focusing mostly on species
earth exists to provide resources
nature should be left alone
compromise between development and preservationist approach
costs external to a corperation, such as to the environment or public
business can expand and take care of environment
forces industry to account for where waste is going
triple bottom line
ethical criteria for business success: financial, social, environmental; people, planet, profit.
99% is saline or frozen, 1% is potentially drinkable.
area of the earth’s productive land and water required to supply the resources that an individual demands, as well as to absorb the wastes that the individual produces
investigates justifications for different cultural positions on the environment
probability that an action will lead to injury, damage, or loss
environmental risk assessment
use of facts and assumptions to determine the probability of harm to people or the environment from management decisions
decision-making process that involves weighing policy alternatives and selecting the most appropriate regulatory action by integrating the results of risk assessment with engineering data and with social, economic, and political concerns
1) evaluate risk data2) how much risk is acceptable?3) prioritize risks4) assign limited funds to greatest benefit5) decide upon monitoring and enforcement
no significant risk
study of how people choose to use resources to produce goods and services and how the same are distributed to the public
75K km^2 or 30K mi^2 of land disturbed in the US
any addition of matter or energy that degrades the environment for humans and other organisms
decomposer organisms can break these types of materials down into simple chemicals, like water and CO2.
private or public expenditures to correct pollution damage
pollution prevention costs
incurred in the private sector or by government to prevent, either entirely or partially
Oil Pollution Act of 1990
Bans vessels with a history of oil leaks from entering Prince William Sound. Companies must have a plan in place in the event of a future spill.
1992. Rio. Sustainable development.
Kyoto Summit of 1997
Kyoto Protocol, reduce greenhouse gases. UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
Market based instruments
Information programs, tradeable emissions permits, emissions fees and taxes, deposit-funded programs, performance bonds.
provide consumers with information about environmental consequences.
Tradable emissions permits
permit companies to emit specified quantities of pollutants
Emissions fees and taxes
provide incentives for environmental improvement by making the reverse expensive.
surcharge on a product that is refunded when the product is returned for reuse or recycling
fees collected to ensure proper care is taken to protect environmental resources
life cycle analysis
assess environmental effects of production, use, reuse, and disposal of a product.
extended product responsibility
producer is responsible for all of the negative effects involved in its product
Environmental Justice Movement
Warren County, NC, Sept, 1982, organized non-violoent protest to dumping PCB-laced soils in a predominantly non-white community.
risk-based corrective action (RCBA)
protect environmental resources by assigning value based on risk. for corrective action strategies that categorize sites according to risk and move all sites toward completion using appropriate levels of action and oversight. The ASTM standard is a good example of a framework for implementing a RBCA strategy.
group of environmentalists, investors, and companies, formed the Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economics (CERES)1989. Set of 10 environmental standards called CERES principles
1. protect biosphere2. sustainable use of natural resources3.
reduce and dispose of waste safely4. conserve energy5. minimize environmental risks through safe tech6. reduce use, manufacture, and sale of env.
damaging products7. restore env. damage8. inform public of health, safety, or env. conditions9.
consider env. policy in management decisions10. report annual audit results to public
use of facts and assumptions to estimate the probability of harm to human health or the environment that may result from particular management decisions
labor (human), capital (financial), land (ecological)
tragedy of the commons
Running on empty, and don’t care..
. In economics, the tragedy of the commons is the depletion of a shared resource by individuals, acting independently and rationally according to each one’s self-interest, despite their understanding that depleting the common resource is contrary to the group’s long-term best interests
shows cause and effect
an event that occurs repeatably probably has the same cause each time
what one person perceives can be perceived by others
rules of nature
same fundamental rules apply regardless of time and location
superfund law (1980)
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Taxed industry. Federal authority to respond directly to releases or threatened releases of hazardous substances that may endanger public health or the environment.
H20 + C02 + energy = C6H1206 + 3 O2
position shows energy level and electron configuration