Environmental Systems Fall Semester Final

The greatest amount of solid waste material thrown away today is ____
paper and cardboard
which of the following is a problem with solid waste disposal?
all of the above (cost, groundwater hazard, maintaining air quality)
which of the following marked a cultural shift towards consumerism
WW2
Which of the following is not a method of waste management?
secondary recovery
in a modern landfill, the nasty water that leaches from the site…
has to be treated by pumping it out of landfill to remove toxins
which of the following is NOT a method of “source reduction”?
composting of municipal park leaves
the major problem with recycling plastics is…
the inability to mix different plastics
the type of plastic most commonly found in water bottles, and used for making Patagonia fleece jackets:
#1 polyethylene therephthalate PETE
the most immediate problem resulting from the increase in MSW is
a shortage of space in landfills
the selection of a modern landfill site is based on
all of the above (understanding groundwater geology, soil type, sensitivity to concerns of local citizens)
future management of municipal solid wast will be an approaching utilizing…
all of the above (landfills, incineration, source reduction, recycling)
one of the benefits of incineration
it reduces the weight and volume of solid waste
one Sunday edition of the NY times consumes about ___ trees
60,000
what decade became known as the “disposable” decade?
1950’s
the usa produces about ___ tons of solid waste every year.
200,000,000
t/f: the long term success of recycling programs is tied to economic incentives
true
the most fundamental strategy for reducing solid waste is….
reducing how much is used initially
According to the EPA, what is OSW?
a government agency
According to the textbook, the total amount of plastic being thrown away over the last 50 years
has increased
the second most common item in MSW is
yard waste (ex. grass clippings)
what gas is produced by landfills at such high level that expensive equipment must be used to detect and manage it?
methane
t/f: consumers are often willing to pay a higher price for materials made from recycled products.
true
a type of incineration used in European countries to produce marketable energy is
mass burn
a process of reducing MSW and burning it is called
incineration
waste produced by densely populated communities
MSW
the propaganda stating “our economy will collapse” if consumeristic behaviors are modified to be more conservative
forced consumption
three r’s of solid waste management?
reduce, reuse, recycle
t/f: environmental science is a narrowly defined field of physical and biological sciences
false
t/f: the forest fires that swept through Mexico in 1998 only effected citizens in Central America; the US was not impacted in any way.
false
environmental science is an interdisciplinary area of study that deal with all of the following except
astrology (politics, economics, ethics, ecology)
the 1997 Kyoto Summit was an international commitment to:
reduce emissions of greenhouse gasses
bioaccumulation of pollutants in the food chain results in
a high concentration of toxins is top predators
in the south, ____ creates a situation that encourages industries to take advantage of nearby communities by developing sites at the expense of environment or these communities.
long-term poverty
in the article, “Water connections,” which government decision in 1983 most led to the loss of food sources for the endangered Siberian crane in the Keoladeo National Park in India?
preventing farmers from grazing their buffalo in the park
Dominated by large metropolitan complexes; left over toxic waste from old industry
Great Lakes region
Severe climate; takes long time to repair permafrost
wilderness north
Much is native American or government owned; irrigation with groundwater causes salination (salt) of soil
Dry West
conflict between logging industry wildlife habitat along Pacific coastal region
Forested west
unwise development of barrier islands (think hurricanes)
diverse south
water often polluted by fertilizers, pesticides, and hormones; air pollution from wind-blown soil
agricultural middle
most closely associated with conflict between ranchers and preservationist; overgrazing a huge issue
dry west
Often water is so polluted that fishing and recreation are prohibited
great lakes region
what species of animal was re-introduced into Yellowstone National Park in recent decades, leading to increases in number of beaver, aspen, and willow trees?
grey wolves
what is the common name for the UNCED meeting in Rio de Janeiro in 1992?
Earth Summit
the international Join Commission (1990) came from a treaty signed by the US and
Canada
a region where organisms and the non-living physical surroundings form an interacting unit is best defined as a
ecosystem
in the textbook’s discussion of the 2005 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, what single factor was most to blame for the loss of soil to erosion, destruction of natural ecosystems and the loss of water resources?
human population growth
Point at which there is no significant health or environmental risk
negligible risk
use of facts to estimate the probability of harm to human health that may result from exposure to pollutants, toxins, or management decisions
risk assessment
substance that causes cancer
carcinogen
decision-making process that uses input such as risk assessment and economic impacts
risk management
expenses borne by someone other than the individuals who are using the resource
external costs
amoung of product that consumers are willing and able to buy at various prices
demand
mathematical statement about how likely something will happen
probablity
using renewable resources in harmony with ecological systems to produce a rise in real income and improved standard of living
sustainable development
gift to private enterprise by government when the enterprise is in temporary economic difficulty or to foster governmental goals
subsidy
relationship between available supply of a commodity or service and its price
supply/demand curve
in some pollutants like mercury, the risk is not cancerous but is perhaps linked to birth defects or neurotoxicity. instead of referring to risk as a probability, researchers refer to levels of exposure estimated to be without harm, also known as a
reference dose (RfD)
accoring to professional regulators of EPA, which of the following is of greatest danger to the public, especially since the public does not perceive its risk?
indoor air pollution
t/f: accorind to supply/demand, when the quantity of a resouce devreases, it’s price will increase
true
in extended produce responsibility, major companies strive to:
all of the above (make packaging re-usable, make products from materials that are less toxic to ecosystems, use materials that are esily recycled and/or reused)
which statement best describes the benefits of 3M’s “pollution prevention pays[3P]”
by following it;s policies of adopting strict pollution-controls, the corporation has actually made billions more
Debt-for-nature allows:
debtor countries to substitute environmental advances for debt owed to others
t/f: even if funding was available, risk could not be totally eliminated
true
which of the following is not apart of risk assessment?
prioritizzation of risk
in cost rican rain forests, which is true
the government realizes the value of natural settings and has set 20% of the land aside as protected refuges and parks for tourism
according to the text’s. “issues and analysis” article, in 200, under the Clinton administration, a program to limit mercury failed due to political pressure from power companies. In 2003 under the Bush administration, mercury emissions were controlled by using tradable permits. according to the articles, what is the great concern about mercury contamination?
it bioaccumulates in fishes’ omega-3 fatty acids, which impacts our food chain
which of the following is not true?
morals do not change over time
environmental justice is best described by which statement?
“It’s interesting that they always locate hazardous-waste disposal sites closer to poor neighborhoods than rich ones”

t/f: corperations are legal entities desined to operate at a profit, and usually have a greater influence on government policy than politicians and the public.

 

true
the kyoto protocol was an international agreement about…
reducing the amount of carbon dioxide and toehr greenhouse gasses emitted by nations
which attitude would state, “Nature is a goddess that needs to be protected rfom the virus of mankind”
preservationist
based on text essay, Water Connections, which of the following is untrue about water on our planet?
because our planet’s surface is mainly covered with water, which evaporates and rains back down, there are no real water problems today
which ethic would state, “the earth belongs to mankind to do with what he sees fit”
development
of the 3 theories of moral responsibility, which declares that the environment is an entity that has value at least equal to that of man?
ecocentric
t/f: poop people in underdeveloped countries make less of an ‘ecological footprint’ than people in developed nations.
true
This naturalist from California organized the Sierra Club in the 1890’s, and encouraged all city-dwellers to spend time appreciating the wilderness
John Muir
this writer published Silent Spring in 1962, which dramatized the deadly effect of pesticides on wildlife, and led to changes in laws in the USA.
Rachel Carson
this naturalist founded the field of game management, and believe that regulated hunting could be used to help control balance in ecosystems by limiting populations of certain species
Aldo Leopold
this early naturalist had a profound influence on the life of Thoreau; he was one of the first critics of rampant, uncontrolled economic development
Ralph Waldo Emerson
this well-educated naturalist spend over a year in the woods, learning to live off the land, and eventually writing about it in Walden
Henry David Thoreau
regulated the production of organic pollutants/toxins
Stockhom Convention
regulated the trade in endangered species
CITES
Controlled release of chamicals that were destorying our Ozone Layer
Montreal Protocal
inorganic phosphorus enters the cycle from:
mineral rock
inorganic carbon enters the cycle from
atmosphere
each step in the flow of energy in an ecosystem’s food chain is called a
trophic level
t/f: all biogeochemical cycle must pass through a consumer
false
inorganic nitrogen is primarily stored in…
atmosphere
as food energy passes through a food chain, how much of its energy is converted into living material of the next level?
10%
which of the following is a producer?
grass
which of following is a secondary consumer?
wolf
which of the following is not a decomposer?
grass
Hookworms living in the intestines of a small child is an example of a
endoparasite
an organism’s functional role in its habitat is known as its…
niche
t/f: energy does not flow through ecosystems–it recycles itself
false
what term is used to describe food chains that overlap each other?
food web
a tick feeding on your neck is an example of
ectoparasite
another name for primary consumers is:
herbivores
t/f: most of the energy used in ecosystems today originates on the earth
false
everything that affects an organism during its lifetime is collectively known as its
environment
the local temperature, soil type and amount of percipitations can best be called
abiotic factors
according to text article, “water connections”, the food chains of the Great Lakes is becoming drastically altered by:
introduced zebra muscles
the specific space in which an organism lives is
a habitat
in North America the keystone species for developing our prairie ecosystems were
bison
t/f: because the air is primarily made of nitrogen, atmospheric nitrogen is easily used by plants and rarely is a limiting factor for plant growth
false
t/f: predation is a type of symbiotic relationship
false
heartworms in your dog
parasitism
yucca moth and yucca plant
mutualism
cattle egret and cattle
commensalism
oxpecker and giraffe
mutualism
cat and songbird
predation
wolf and mountain lion
interspecific competition
two dogs, one milk-bone
intraspecific competition
this bacteria converts nitrogen gas into ammonia; found in soil or in roots of legumes
nitrogen-fixing
this bacteria converts ammonia into nitrite, making it easier for some plants to uptake
nitrifying
this bacteria lives in anaerobic conditions and removes oxygen from nitrite to nitrogen gas
denitrifying
the process by which rock and mineral soil is turned into an ecosystem
primary succession
those organisms that first move into an ecosystem
pioneer
another name for succession stage
sere
t/f: in cool mountain streams, most of the organic matter comes from the land
true
t/f: an established climax community cannot ever experience primary succession again
false
shallow, warm, nutrient-rich lakes are called
eutrophic
those plants that are rooted in the bottom of littoral zones and appear above water are called
emergent
a frequent pioneer species on a rock
lichens
deserts are cool at night because
have little water to hold the heat
in vegetation type
high altitude is like high latitude
in primary succession of land…
it requires soil formation over great time
phytoplankton in the oceans are
producers
high rainfall, steady temperatures, poor soil
tropical rain forest
usually in mountains or boreal regions; evergreens; snowfall
taiga
hardwoods; four distinct seasons, undisturbed climax
temperate deciduous forest
low rainfall, temperature extremes each day, animals with special adaptations to survive
desert
low rainfall, good soils, often wildfires
grassland
Lichen is a mutualistic symbiosis between 2 creatures: an ascomycete (fungi) together with a _______
algae or bacteria
Betsy loves to fish for large mouth bass. when she wades into the shallows of the pond amongst the water plants to cast her lure, she is standing in the _____ zone
littoral
what two factors determine the type of terrestrial biome?
precipitation and temperature