ENVL Issues

Municipal waste ranks where in local government expenses?
How much trash is recycled from 1996 – 2006?
28% to 32%
Solid waste is predicted to double over how much time?
16 – 30 years
How much does local government spend on municipal waste each year?
$50 billion
What did the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act establish?

-Epa allowed expansion and new landfills

-Only non-hazardous waste

-Must be kept away from airports, wetlands and steep slopes.

-Lined with plastic

-Monitoring systems were installed

-Financial assurance for post monitoring

Have landfills increased or decreased since 1978?
Deceased. 20,000 in 1978 to 1,900 in 2011
Are there incentives to recycle vs putting in solid waste?
No, it is more expensive to recycle.
What is the most recycled item of municipal waste?
Lead acid batteries (car batteries)
Roughly how much of all waste go into landfills in the US? (Not recycled or incinerated)
About %50
How many commercial landfills are there in NJ?
Which state accepts the most municipal waste?
Which two cities have made the biggest strides waste reduction?
Portland, OR and San Francisco, CA
Which material requires the most energy to recycle?
How much of our waste is incinerated in New Jersey?
What can the Federal Government do to reduce solid waste?

-Ban packaging that’s not biodegradable

-Require manufacturing take backs

EPA believes how much of municipal waste is recyclable?
What can be done to reduce waste?

-Mandatory recycling
-Charge for societal waste
-Charge per bag

Which state is the top exporting state of municipal waste and how much do they export?
New York. They export 4.2 million tons per year
How is PJM involved in electricity?

-Operate the grid

-Facilitate electric markets

-Plan for expansions

How many people does PJM serve?
51 million
How many states does PJM serve?
13 plus DC
What is the peak demand of PJM systems?
144,000 Mw
What are the two energy markets?
Day Ahead and Real Time

What are the three largest power generation methods?

How much of our total energy do they produce?

Nuclear (19%), coal (40%) and Natural Gas (28%) make up roughly 90% of our energy.
What is NJ renewable Energy Portfolio?
22.5% by 2021
How many nuclear plants are the Chinese currently building?
What led to the degradation of the ecosystem?

-Less open space

-Fragmentation of habitat

-Few old trees

What are two goals of Ecological Restoration?
Interconnectivity and Maximize available parcels
What is the forest interior?
The part of the forest that is 100 meters from the nearest edge
What species utilize nesting boxes?
Bluebird, wood duck, American Kestrel, Peregrine Falcon, Eastern Screech Owl and Bats.
What is the limitations on these birds populations?
Predators and invasive species
What percentage of water is taken out for irrigation in the Klamouth River?
What two tribes utilize the Klamouth River?
Yurok and Hoppa
What parties are affected by the Klamouth River?
Indians, Farmers, Commercial Fisherman, Fish, Power Companies
Who wanted to preserve land and for what reasons?
John Muir wanted to keep it the same for future generations to experience.
Who wanted to conserve land and why?
Gifford Pinchot wanted to preserve as well and utilize the land for economic gains.
How much land does the Federal Government own in the US?
625 million acres
What problems are associated with federal lands?

-Feds don’t pay taxes

-No room for economic growth

-Strict regulations

What is the largest National Park? How big is it?
Wrangell – St. Elias in Alaska is 13.2 million acres
What is the smallest National Park? How small is it?
Kosciuscko in Pennsylvania is .02 acres
What are the National Parks principles?

-Maintained by Federal Gov’t for the people

-Balance of Scenic, Scientific and Historical significance

-Benefit for today

– No commercial or natural resources

-Founded on education

-Recreation, not amusement

-No financial gain

-Private ownership undesireable (Inholdings)

-Intended to last forever

-Laws are federal crimes

How are National Monuments preserved?
The President uses the Antiquities Act of 1906
What National Monument did George H. W. Bush create?
Northwestern Hawaiian Island National Monument
What do National Preserves allow that National Parks don’t?
Hunting, Trapping and Natural Resource extraction
What characteristics make up a National Recreation Area?

-Centered on a large body of water

-Emphasizes water-based recreation

-First was Lake Mead

How many NWR are under the Fish and Wildlife Service?
How many surface acres does BLM oversee? How many subsurface acres?
258 million surface acres, 700 million subsurface acres
What percentage of federal land is managed by BLM?
How many National Forests are there?
National Forests allow what activities on their land?

-Timber harvesting


-Wilderness areas



AKA MUSY (Multiple Use – Sustainable Yield)

Which state has the highest percentage of National Forest land