ENVL Issues

How did lead get into the water that flowed through the pipes and taps?
1) Use of lead soder2) Use of brass fittings
What is the current replacement rate for pipes in NJ municipalities?
800 years
What is the current replacement rate for pipes in NJ by NJ American Water?
400 years
Two types of water rights?
-Riperian-Prior appropriations
Which 3 states have water requirements for development?
What ways can we reduce water demand?
-Technology-Increase block rate pricing-Restrictions on water use-Subsidies for consumer who adopt water efficient tech-Retrofit programs
At which physical points do the test the water we drink?
-After it leaves the treatment plant-At the end users tap
What are federal techniques for water supply planning?
-Building dams-Diverting water for irrigation
Which agency built the Hoover Dam?
Bureau of Reclamation
What did the Army Corps of Engineers build?
250 + dams for flood control
What is the NYC case Study?
-Catskill property for clean water
What are the 3 components of the NYC watershed protection program?
-Land aquisition-Watershed protection-Regulations
How many gallons is the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer?
17 trillion
What is the connection between land use and water supply?
-Open land is permiable-Buildings, roads, etc are not 
What are 4 methods of traffic calming?
-Bulb out-Narrow streets-Traffic cirlces-Cul de sac
What are the 12 key strategies to a liveable community?
-Enhance design standards-Develop more parks-Icrease access to healthy food-More green infrastructure-Provide alternative modes-Incorporate context sensative design-Invest in centers-Improve education
Which state is losing the most farmland the fastest?
What are some creative sideas for roads  and hydrology?
-Permable surfaces-Tradable permits-User pays techniques
What is the average life expectancy for a piece of modern pipe?
100 years
What is the progression of water pipes?
-Cement-Stove pipe-Cast iron
What are types of land preservation for smat growth?
-Parks, green space-Farmland
Where do he majority of CO2 emissions come from at Stockton?
Name 2 local planning BMPs for transporation?
-Minimize cut and fill-Avoid slopes >15%
How can roads contaminate water?
Heavy metals, gasoline, salts
What are 4 ENVL effects of transportation?
-Hydrology-Erosion-Sedimentation/Channelization-Water contamination
What does ISTEAand TEA-21 fund?
Pedestrian/Bike projectsMass transitHighway repair
What does ISTEA require?
Local/regional gov’t to make investmentsIntegrate transportation and air qualityImprove intermodal integration
Compare Spains high speed rail vs the US
Spain spent $15 billionUS spent $9 billion
What is the trend of mass transit vs cars since 1980?
Vehicles ridership has rose Public trans declinedSlight reverse in 2008 because of economic down turn
What are MPOs?
Metropolitan Planning Organizations-Recieve inputs on trans issues-Draft transit plans-Set regional priorities
What are TODs?
Transit Orientation Development-Hub around mass transit stations-Less congestion-Better air quality-More effiecient mass rasit
What is the road effect zone?
The area over which significant ecological effects extend from the road
How can congestion be fixed?
-Less free parking spots-Toll roads-Congestion pricing
What are some problems with traffic?
-Emissions-Waste of time and natural resources-HOV lanes not being used properly
What are issues with cars vs mass transit?
-Bias towards cars-Gas taxes go into highway repair-Highway lobby is strong
Tansportation influences what?
Urban design
What are the problem with early US roads?
Drainage and sediments
Which PA county has the greatest preservation program?
What are the obstacles to a successful farmland preservation program?
-Fragmentation-Expensive-Lack of funds-Confusing-Lack of strategy
Which state has the most PDRs?
Pennsylvania, 225,000 acres 
What are the 4 benefits of preserving farmland?
-Still has tax value-Preserves open land-Does not increase community services-Control rate of community development
Name two ways gov’t can help preserve farmland?
-Zoning for agriculture-Purchasable Development Rights
What is one of he main challenges to preserving high quality farmland?
How much farmland is there in the US?
940 millions acres
How much farmland are we losing?
1 millon acres per year
Who hold most of he privately held land in the US?
Ranchers and farmers
What are the 3 biggest challenges farmers face?
-Increasing prices for development-Passing the farm down to a famil member-Pofitablity/staying afloat financially
What are the 5 main goals of farmland preservation programs?
-Maintain critical mass of farmland-Maintain afforable land prices-Reliability over time-Reasonable cost to benefit-Sustaining public/political support
Why has infrastructure gotten to the point where revenue is below the required cost of maintenance?
Gas tax has not raised since 1992
What percent of road expenditure in the US is covered by the gas tax? 
What is the reason behind London road pricing?
-Fee to enter Central London-Discourage private cars-Reduce congestion-Use money to invest in public transportation
What were the effecs of the London road pricing?
-25% in congestion on first day-Decease in emissions-Boutiques closed due to less traffic
What is the NYC Congestion Tax?
$8 fee to ener below Central Park
How any watersheds does NJ have?
How many states does the Chesapeake Bay Watershed cover?
What are some of the major ecological effecs of roads?
-Roadkills-Scares animals-Fragmentation-Runoff
Why has productivity of farmlands declined?
In 2000, how much did farmers money worth of produce did they produce?
$194 billion
How big is the average farm?
500 acres