ENVL Issues

How did lead get into the water that flowed through the pipes and taps?

1) Use of lead soder

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2) Use of brass fittings

What is the current replacement rate for pipes in NJ municipalities?
800 years
What is the current replacement rate for pipes in NJ by NJ American Water?
400 years
Two types of water rights?


-Prior appropriations

Which 3 states have water requirements for development?




What ways can we reduce water demand?


-Increase block rate pricing

-Restrictions on water use

-Subsidies for consumer who adopt water efficient tech

-Retrofit programs

At which physical points do the test the water we drink?

-After it leaves the treatment plant

-At the end users tap

What are federal techniques for water supply planning?

-Building dams

-Diverting water for irrigation

Which agency built the Hoover Dam?
Bureau of Reclamation
What did the Army Corps of Engineers build?
250 + dams for flood control
What is the NYC case Study?
-Catskill property for clean water
What are the 3 components of the NYC watershed protection program?

-Land aquisition

-Watershed protection


How many gallons is the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer?
17 trillion
What is the connection between land use and water supply?

-Open land is permiable

-Buildings, roads, etc are not


What are 4 methods of traffic calming?

-Bulb out

-Narrow streets

-Traffic cirlces

-Cul de sac

What are the 12 key strategies to a liveable community?

-Enhance design standards

-Develop more parks
-Icrease access to healthy food

-More green infrastructure

-Provide alternative modes

-Incorporate context sensative design

-Invest in centers

-Improve education

Which state is losing the most farmland the fastest?
What are some creative sideas for roads  and hydrology?

-Permable surfaces

-Tradable permits

-User pays techniques

What is the average life expectancy for a piece of modern pipe?
100 years
What is the progression of water pipes?


-Stove pipe

-Cast iron

What are types of land preservation for smat growth?

-Parks, green space


Where do he majority of CO2 emissions come from at Stockton?
Name 2 local planning BMPs for transporation?

-Minimize cut and fill

-Avoid slopes >15%

How can roads contaminate water?
Heavy metals, gasoline, salts
What are 4 ENVL effects of transportation?




-Water contamination

What does ISTEAand TEA-21 fund?

Pedestrian/Bike projects

Mass transit

Highway repair

What does ISTEA require?

Local/regional gov’t to make investments

Integrate transportation and air quality

Improve intermodal integration

Compare Spains high speed rail vs the US

Spain spent $15 billion

US spent $9 billion

What is the trend of mass transit vs cars since 1980?

Vehicles ridership has rose 

Public trans declined

Slight reverse in 2008 because of economic down turn

What are MPOs?

Metropolitan Planning Organizations

-Recieve inputs on trans issues

-Draft transit plans

-Set regional priorities

What are TODs?

Transit Orientation Development

-Hub around mass transit stations

-Less congestion

-Better air quality

-More effiecient mass rasit

What is the road effect zone?
The area over which significant ecological effects extend from the road
How can congestion be fixed?

-Less free parking spots

-Toll roads

-Congestion pricing

What are some problems with traffic?


-Waste of time and natural resources

-HOV lanes not being used properly

What are issues with cars vs mass transit?

-Bias towards cars

-Gas taxes go into highway repair

-Highway lobby is strong

Tansportation influences what?
Urban design
What are the problem with early US roads?
Drainage and sediments
Which PA county has the greatest preservation program?
What are the obstacles to a successful farmland preservation program?



-Lack of funds


-Lack of strategy

Which state has the most PDRs?

Pennsylvania, 225,000 acres


What are the 4 benefits of preserving farmland?

-Still has tax value

-Preserves open land

-Does not increase community services

-Control rate of community development

Name two ways gov’t can help preserve farmland?

-Zoning for agriculture

-Purchasable Development Rights

What is one of he main challenges to preserving high quality farmland?
How much farmland is there in the US?
940 millions acres
How much farmland are we losing?
1 millon acres per year
Who hold most of he privately held land in the US?
Ranchers and farmers
What are the 3 biggest challenges farmers face?

-Increasing prices for development

-Passing the farm down to a famil member

-Pofitablity/staying afloat financially

What are the 5 main goals of farmland preservation programs?

-Maintain critical mass of farmland

-Maintain afforable land prices

-Reliability over time

-Reasonable cost to benefit

-Sustaining public/political support

Why has infrastructure gotten to the point where revenue is below the required cost of maintenance?
Gas tax has not raised since 1992

What percent of road expenditure in the US is covered by the gas tax?


What is the reason behind London road pricing?

-Fee to enter Central London

-Discourage private cars

-Reduce congestion

-Use money to invest in public transportation

What were the effecs of the London road pricing?

-25% in congestion on first day

-Decease in emissions

-Boutiques closed due to less traffic

What is the NYC Congestion Tax?
$8 fee to ener below Central Park
How any watersheds does NJ have?
How many states does the Chesapeake Bay Watershed cover?
What are some of the major ecological effecs of roads?


-Scares animals



Why has productivity of farmlands declined?




In 2000, how much did farmers money worth of produce did they produce?
$194 billion
How big is the average farm?
500 acres