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WATER

800 MIL PPL IN THE WORLD DON’T HAVE ACCESS TO CLEAN DRINKING WATER

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EVERY $1 SPEND ON OBTAININ CLEAN WATER IS $5.50 SAVE BY PRVENTING ILLNESS AND DISEASE

50% OF THE DEVELOPING WORLD WILL SUFFER AN ILLNESS 

4 HRS ARE SPENT FECTHING WATER (WOMEN)

 

WASTEWATER

WHERE DO WE PUT HUMAN FECES 2.6 BILLION PPL LACK SANTITATION

;200 MIL TONS OF SEWAGE UNTREATED EVERY YEAR

90% DEVELOPING WORLD DISCHARGES RAW SEWAGE DIRECTLY INTO SOIL, LAKE, RIVERS, AND OCEANS

WHO ESTIMATES 1.4 MILLION CHILDREN DIE EACH YEAR

EVERY $1 INVESTED RETURN OVER $8

 

HANDWASHING

 

 

 

GLOBAL WATER SUPPLY

THE SIMPLE ACT OF WASHING ONE’S HAND CAN REDUCE DIARRHEAL DISEASE BY 33%

 

 

THE WORLD’S TOTAL WATER SUPPLY CAN’T BE INCREASED

ONLY BE MANANGED

3% EARTH WATER IS FRESH THE REST IS IN POLAR ICE CAPS OR TOO DEEP TO ACCESS

 

 

4 TYPES OF WATER CONVEYANCE IN LA

1. DRIKING WATER

2. SEWER SYSTEM

3. RECLAIMED WATER

4. STORM DRAIN(MS4)

3 STATES OF WATER

1. SOLID (ICE)

2. LIQUID

3. GAS (WATER VAPOR)

HYDROLOGIC CYCLE

CONCEPTS:

WATER CYCLES THROUGH VARIOUS POOLS IN THE ENVIRONMENT

CYCLING OCCURS WHEN WATER CHANGES STATE( LIQUID TO VAPOR)

THIS IS CYCLYING IS DRIVEN BY SOLAR ENERGY 

RELATIVE HUMIDITY
R.H. = Actual Vapor Pressure x 100
Saturation Vapor Pressure
* Saturation VP is a unique function of TEMPERATURE *
Ex: @ 90 F, Sat. VP = 48.1 mb
– What is R.H. if actual VP is 10.2 mb at 90 F?
10.2mb/48.1mb x 100 = 21%
RELATIVE HUMIDITY
If R.H. is 100%, sweat will not evaporate into the air and we feel much hotter! (Florida!)
At 100% R.H., the air can’t hold more water vapor and clouds form.
* R.H. does not have to be 100% for it to rain *
ADIABATIC LAPSE RATE
Air cools 3.5 F per 1,000 foot elevation gain.- one of the driving forces for the Hydrologic Cycle

Problem: We climb Mt. Whitney (15,000’) – how cold is it at the summit if it is 70 F in Lone Pine (3,000’)?
ANSWER 28F

WATE’S STRANGE PROPERTIES
Expansion upon freezing (forms a crystalline structure)
Higher boiling temperature (vs. other Group 6A Hydrides)
Higher melting point (32 Degrees)
Higher cohesion (sticks together – i.e., straw)
Higher Specific Heat (Resists changes in temp.)
High Heat of Vaporization (Resists evaporating)
WATER’S STRANGE PROPERTIES
Expansion upon freezing (forms a crystalline structure)
Higher boiling temperature (vs. other Group 6A Hydrides)
Higher melting point (32 Degrees)
Higher cohesion (sticks together – i.e., straw)
Higher Specific Heat (Resists changes in temp.)
High Heat of Vaporization (Resists evaporating)
WATER’S STRANGE PROPERTIES
DENSITY: at 4 degrees C, maximum density
– so, in the middle of winter, ice on a lake floats on top of water.
– Below 4 degrees C, water starts to expand to form its crystalline structure.
WATERBORNE DISEASE
Bacteria (Ex: Vibrio cholera, E., coli)
Viruses (Polio, Norwalk Virus)
Protozoa (Giardia, Cryptosporidium)
* We use indicator organisims (E. coli) *
SWIMMING POOLS
CDC recommends a CT-value of 9600, after a fecal accident. – CT = Time x Chlorine Concentration (mins) x (mg/L)

Example: 20 ppm free Chlorine for 8 hours
(480) x (20mg/L) = 9600

SWIMMING POOLS
pH: 7.2 – 8.0
Chlorine level a minimum of 1 ppm
Pool turnover time of 6 hours or less
Occupant Load: 1 per 20 sq. ft. (10 sq. ft. for spa)
Split main drains and/or anti-entrapment devices
COLORADO RIVER
It is the most legislated, debated, and litigated river in the world
Main water source for the Southwest
Between 1918 & 1921 the 7 states were unable to agree
Interstate compacts, federal & state laws, water contracts & treaties now are known as “The Law of the River”
The 1922 Colorado River Compact is the main part (11/24/1922)
CALIFORNIA AND THE COLORADO RIVER
Last ten years: 4.5 to 5.2 maf
Surplus conditions and unused amounts by Arizona & Nevada
MWD will slowly be “weaned” off of surplus water
Palo Verde I.D., Imperial I.D., & Coachella Valley W.D. have 1st rights
– 3.85 maf
? MWD is allotted 550,000 af (without surpluses and unused amounts)
PARKER DAM
Created Lake Havasu (648,000 af)
Deepest dam in the world (320 feet), but 73% is underground
During construction: excavated 235 feet below the river bed
Dam was completed in 1938
? 50% of Parker Powerplant is used for MWD to pump water
COLORADO RIVER AQUEDUCT
Mulholland was first to push idea in the early 1920’s
? He performed the first surveys of possible routes
1928 MWD was formed and in 1931 $220 million bond
Construction began in 1932
1st delivery of water was to Pasadena in 1941 (no need for it)
Delivers 1.2 maf, or about 1 billion gallons/day (242 miles)
FACTS ABOUT THE SWP
580 miles of aqueducts (444 = California Aqueduct)
15 pumping plants along 444 miles lifts water a total of 3,500 feet
Edmonston Pumping Plant lifts water almost 2,000 feet (record)
Two branches: East (Lake Perris) and West (Castaic Lake)
? Completed in 1972
LOS ANGELES AQUEDUCT
1908-1913
• Total construction cost approx. $23 million (bond)
• Eastern side of Sierra Nevada
• Entirely by gravity
PUBELO OF LOS ANGELES
In 1781 Spanish established a pueblo of approximately 3,700
? Main function was to support Spanish occupation army
? Spanish pueblos established near water supplies (LA River)
TOWN OF LOS ANGELS
? In 1860 the population was around 11,000
? The LA River and underground aquifers were adequate
CITY OF LOS ANGELES
In 1900 the population was around 102,000
? The LA River and underground aquifers were not adequate
– the ground water level was dropping very quickly
? In 1904 there was a severe water shortage – installation of meters dropped usage from over 150 gal to 138 gal
ORIGINAL IDEA
In 1893, Fred Eaton originally thought of the idea
? He was the former L.A. City Engineer and Mayor
? Spent $30,000 of his own money over the next few years
? Approached Mulholland and City Leaders in 1904 with a Private/Public partnership idea
ORIGINAL IDEA
In 1893, Fred Eaton originally thought of the idea
? He was the former L.A. City Engineer and Mayor
? Spent $30,000 of his own money over the next few years
? Approached Mulholland and City Leaders in 1904 with a Private/Public partnership idea
Mulholland’s Study
Mulholland traveled to the Owens Valley and plotted several paths
? He reported to the Board that the project was an excellent idea
? Estimated a cost of construction of $23 Million
? Not only could he build it by gravity but also the aqueduct would generate money by the sale of electricity
BOND MEASURES
In 1905, $1.5 Million for the purchase of land and water rights-passed 10,787 to 755
? In 1907, $23 Million for the construction- passed by a 10:1 margin
FEDERAL WATER LAWS NON DRINKING WATER
1948 Federal Water Pollution Control Act
1972 Amendments established NPDES Program
1977 Amendments: “Clean Water Act”
1987 Amendments: Municipal Storm Water Permits – Phase 1 and Phase 2
STATE WATER LAWS
Porter-Cologne Water Quality Act of 1970
California statute governing water pollution
State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB)
Regional Water Quality Control Boards (RWQCBs)
Regulates discharges to surface AND GROUNDWATER
4 MAIN WATER SYSTEM TYPES
Storm water
Drinking water
Wastewater
Reclaimed Water (treated wastewater)
STORM DRAIN NETWORK
Los Angeles River Watershed
– starts at your doorstep
– curb and gutter line
– catch basins
– open channels
– Los Angeles River empties into Pacific Ocean
UNTREATED!
RAINWATER
When it rains water can percolate into soil/grass/etc., retained onsite, or can runoff of impervious surfaces.

Development increases impervious area, which increases runoff volume and intensity
More people = more pollution
Very efficient flood control system = very efficient discharging pollutants to receiving waters

DRINKING WATER
Screening to remove large items (i.e., branches from the aqueduct)
Addition of a coagulant with rapid mixing to initiate the formation of floc (alum – aluminum sulfate)
Flocculation (creates settleable solids)
Sedimentation
Filtration (anthracite coal and sand)
Inject Chlorine and ammonia (chloramines) – distribution
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Recommended pressure: 65-75 psi
Minimum for residential connection: 40 psi
Maximum: 150 psi (pressure reducers)
Mains are usually at least 6”
Material: Ductile Iron with cement mortar lining
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM PROTECTION
1.Backflow preventers
2.Under pressure
3.Air gap
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM PROTECTION
1.Backflow preventers
2.Under pressure
3.Air gap
FEDERAL DRINKING WATER LAWS
1974 Safe Drinking Water Act
– MCL – Maximum Contaminant Level – Risk Assessment is heavily influenced by politics
WASTEWATER TREATMENT
Preliminary Treatment (screening, flow, pumping, etc)
Primary Treatment (settling & grease/oil removal)
Secondary Treatment (Organic Microorganisms)
Tertiary Treatment (Filtration)
Chlorination and Dechlorination prior to discharge
SEWER SYSTEM
Material: VCP: Vitrified Clay Pipe
– why?
Proper design: buildout horizon, 50% d/D
– Peaking Factor usually 2.5
Gravity if at all possible
Proper Maintenance: CCTV, Cleaning, etc.
DRINKING WATER FILTRATION
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HYDROLOGIC CYCLE
THE TOTAL AMNT OF WATER DOES NOT CHANGE
STARTS WITH EVAPORATION FROM OCEAN (WATER TO GAS)
80% OF EVAPORATION IS FROM OCEANS
20% FROM INLAND WATER AND VEGETATION
WINDS TRANSPORTATION EVAPORATED WATER AROUND THE GLOBE
HYDROLOGIC CYCLE
[image]
WASTE WATER TREATMENT
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