ESPM C11 Midterm 1 Key Terms

What do people think a forest is?
animal habitats, places where you can obtain food, Japan has a suicide forest, places where you can harvest timber
What might people say the appropriate relationship with a forest it?
humans should protect the forest for recreation, protect animal habitat, and protect timber resources some religions have links to trees, some ppl’s livelihoods are connected to trees
Examples of some of the major issues in managing and conserving forests
use of fireYosemite actually uses it and natives used it who should be responsbile for managing forest?private, govt, militart
Coupled Human- natural systems
framework where there are links to humans and natural systems on the planethow social and natural systems are inseparable ex=ppl want recreation so want nice forests
Reciprocal Feedback loops
path by which some of the output of a system gets brought back into the input and loop affects the environment that in turn affects the loop
Time Lags
time during which action is awaited.Relates to cause/effect of certain policies
Resilience
An ecosystem’s ability to withstand a disturbance
Heteregenity
variety of qualities found in an environment or populationdifferent types of plants and animals
surprises + legacy effects
unexpected events that can occur in forest growth lasting effects from a forest’s past, such as logging and burning
Norm
implicit or explicit rule governing what is accepted within a group or society
values
relative worth of importance
assumptions
what people believe without appropriate knowledge
Dersu Uzala and human-forest relationships
advance of civilization can destroy relationship Dersu lived in peace with forest until the surveyors came + disturbed forest w/guns
Nanai People land culture 
people of the Russian far east. Lived in the middle of the Amur, Sunggari, and Ussuri rivers in Middle Amur Basin.

caught siberian salmon. also did hunting, had animism. Fire was called Fadyza mama. Shamanists with great reverence for tiger (Amba).

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Wosrhippers of sun, moon, mountains, water, and trees

Commodification
turning something into a commodity, make commercial
Usufructory Rights
rights of a person to use and profit from another person’s property as long as he/she isn’t damaging it
subsistence
self sufficient farming where farmers focus on growing enough food for themselves and theirfamilies
Reciprocity
Exchanging things with others for mutual benefit
colonialism
control by one power over a dependent area or people
Indigenous/commercial view of forests
indigenous= conserve forest for value and beauty commercial=use forest to make products like paper, timber to make money
Nanai people Today
Lost their hunting spots due to logging+ water of Amur river containg chemicals and copper
Yurok Forest alogn Pacific coast and Klamath river 
 increasing unsuitability of forests pushed yuroks to sellgeneral allotment act applied property rights to reservations. natives to become civilized through learning to farm dawes act- natives given allotment of farming and livestock
Spatial and Tomporal characteristics of Yurok land
yurok managed the watershed for diversity, and used fires to make sure douglas firs would not grow too tall too quickly
States and Transition Model to explain differnce b/t Yurok and American management
shows that using herbicides/intensive timber managementcan cause process to go from prarie to immature douglass firfires can cause shrubs/grass to go back to prairie, and fire can prevent immature douglas from becoming mature  
Yurok use of fire
increase spatial extent of grassland, oak woodland, shrubland plant communities that was useful plant material and attracted game burned douglas fir b/c preferred oak reproduction and growth
free-riders
people who don’t do what is in the best interest of agroup
commons
shared resources where each stakeholder has an equal interest
levithan
something big that comes in and changes things + controls things
Why policies based on metaphors can be harmful
Metaphors are simply comparisons between two otherwise unlike things. They disregard certain institutional arrangements and the fact that people can talk to each other and make agreements, so they aren’t trapped ina certain situation
Powell
laborers should employ themsellves-; privatization he was an ecologist who knew several native languages and said Arizona forests are better managed by Natives
Pinchot
sustaianability- most good for most people long term. Need highly, effecient focused production of foresters, didn’t really believe in using fire, thought we would run out of timber
Olmstead
forests should be managed by ppl w/appropriate knowledgerather than cadets at west point, they should be be people who spent more time learning about forestry
How forests became associated with the state
govt when Pres Cleveland signed off on federal reserve act assosiated forests with the state. Psuedo-military management was idea proposed by prof.

Sargeant at Harvrd

Organic Act
Established national park service to manage certain federal alnds. Trees could be harvested but not much. Established to conserve lands for future genertaions
Multiple Use Sustained Yield Act-
authorizes and directs secretary of Agriculture to develop and administer the renewable resources of timber, range, water, and recreation in national forests for multiple use and sustained yield of products and services meet the needs of the people. sustained yield=maintain regular output of renewable resources Sustained yield:  regular output without impairment of the land’s productivity.

NEPA
national ecology policy act- include environmental consideration into federal planning and action provides decision makers/stakeholders with information they need to undertand potential environmental impacts of proposed actions
US Forest Service
started b/c of progressive era infludence. Forest reserve act took land from public and called them forest reserves that would be managed by what would become the US forest service
Muir vs. Pinchot
Both=government control Muir = trees are spritual and represent god, believed forests affected climate, once said shooting someone could be more effective than science. conservation for bueaty Pinchot=preservation for resourcessustainability, most good for most people over time, preserve timber
alternative ideas of how to conserve forests
Muir intially said to use force to protect forests Bowers said we need an effect parmanent system of forest management. Fernow=government control Rothock= fire police, subsidies for tree planting, effective forestry school Colvin=army Abbe=civilian force under department of argiculture Roosevelt=federal government + informing the public Riordian=anything it takes
ecosystem
a community of species interacting among one another in the physical environment
community
an aggregation of interacting species
ecology
the study of the relationship between living organisms and their natural environment ex=why a certain plant grows ina particular area
hiiearchy
the fact that smaller classifications can be part of a larger larger classifications of a group of organisms biospher-;biome-;ecosystem-;community-;population-;organism
postive feedback
where resulting output gets increasedmore of one things leads to more of another ex= more wildfire due to global warming can lead to more carbon dioxide emissions that lead to higher temperatures and more wildfire
Negative feedback
more predators eat more animals decreasing the amount of animals  
frontier forests
forests that are ecologically intact and have been mostly undisturbed very few today Amazon is one of them
biome
a large and distinct community of plants and animals that occupies a particular region
ecological gradient
shift from one ecosystem to the next without a sharp boundary ex=tropical forest to temperate forest elevation-temp gets colder at higher elevationsprecipatation- decreases as you move away from the equator maritime-coastal regions get more rainfall
ecological forest social forest political forest
just a regular forest defined, coupled natural systems forest used for ppl’s livelihood, they are part of social identity and connection to a place, have informatl rights and rules land declared forest by government authorities, land use categorized into how many resources can be extracted,  considered government reserve, have management plans
siviculture
process of controlling and manging the forest to meet certain needs and values
maximum sustained yield
thelargest uield that can be taken while still allowing the forest to be productive
old growth
a forest that has gotten to old age without significant disturbance
Bambi
shows that fire is a disturbance and humans don’t care about the animals they are shooting when they hunt
Campaign Against Fire
Marketing campaign sought icon, Disney allowed use of Bambi, Smokey the bare was the new icon , ans at once point recognized more than the presidentstrengthened budget and centralized authority of USFSLoved by publicignored contradictory science, funded supportive science, succession-based forest managementNSF gave millions to prevent lightning in project skyfire
Fire and the Forest Powell Resiliency
Powell recognized the human role in producing a resilient forest Resilient forest= not much vegetation in understory for fire to climb onto the crown fromhigh frequency, low intensity firessome forests follow a different model w/regular burning: Yosemite Results that we’re living with= large fires and vegetation changebiome is subject to fires
How can we restore resilience?
communities affected by fire participate
Langston= Misfit of classical succession model to forest
disturbance is a rare, external event, not intrinsic property like Clements said Succession isn’t orderly because foresters couldn’t really always predice that would come in after disturbance If forests followed simple laws of competition like Clements said, foresters would manipulate competitive struggle to speed up succession to arrive at most desirable plant communities
Fairfax et al: Who decides and who benefits or pays the price?
Muir and Pinchot both believed in federal ownership and that local users of natural resources were greedy, ill-informed, and untrustworthy alternative approached that might be more harmonious with current efforts of local groups to get control over their environment, ime to look at conservation modes that don’t depend on federal ownership and management of public sometimes, too many trees leads to insect attack and dry trees due to limited water resources
environemental justice
have enough resources for future generationspoorer people live near polluting factoriesnational resrouces- some groups get less benefit from the way national resources are managed and allocated
environemental justice
enough resources for future generations poorer people live near polluting factories national resources-some groups less likely to benefit from the particular way a resource is managed or distributed
Fairness
fairness doctrint 1949= eliminated scc equal opportunity to talk on radio in response to others pinchot= greatest good for greatest amount of people= utilitarian and didn’t count minorities free market fairness under Reagan
management models= participatory, collaborative, ecosystem, community Par Collab Ecos Comm
participatory= local + institutional inputs used to develop best policy collaborative- multiple ppl work together and many opinions heard ecosystem- rely on best science, dynamics, broader perspective community-realistic+ long term sustainable solutions -> community aspect leads to better decisions + avoid litigation+ more sustainability
carbon cycle
transfer of carbon in an ecosystem carbon flux-transfer of carbon from 1 pool to another