Q1. Why do we need to know the interconnectivities of a forest and how humans impact it?
Everything affects something else in some way or another. Even small changes to environments (such as taking away one plant) can set off a chain reactionWe need to know this because we have to be careful as humans to not mess up the forests
Q2. Why is cooking a bowl of clam chowder a good analogy for how difficult it is to restore ecosystem function and interconnectivities?
In clam chowder, there are many different ingredients. Its not enough to just know which ingredients are in it, but we need to know how much of each and how they are put togetherThis is a good analogy because the ecosystem has many components and you need to know how they function as a whole in order to restore the ecosystem function
Q3. What is the ‘beginning’ of a carbon cycle? Describe what else in the ecosystem is dependent upon materials produced during the ‘beginning’ of the carbon cycle? How do humans disrupt a forest carbon cycle? Provide an example when answering this question.
The beginning of the carbon cycle is plants absorbing nutrients from the sun and soil. Almost everything in the ecosystem is dependent on this because everything is interconnected so at the very root of everything is plants.Humans disrupt the carbon cycle by converting it differently, which leads to global warming and excess waste in forests.
Q4. What is the function of decomposers in a forest? What would be the repercussion of losing the functioning of the decomposers in the carbon cycle?
Organic material contains complex organic matter. Decomposers (such as fungi) break down this matter into a form that is more readily available for other organismsWithout them we would have unusable piles of organic waste
Describe 2 different types of species interactions in an ecosystem and give an example for each. For both examples that you mentioned, provide one possible result of losing this species interaction.
-predator-prey. Self explanatory-> if lost population crashes, disease outbreak-competition: competition for scare nutrients-mutualism: symbiotic process everyone happy though-parasitism: symbiotic process where one side happy but other side pissed
Q6. Why can the mountain pine beetle be considered a parasite? Explain this species interaction.
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What is increasing the spread of the mountain pine beetle and why?
because it leaches onto trees and takes carbon from them, killing treesGlobal warming is increasing spread because they love hot temps
Q7. What is a soil food web and what is the food web dependent upon to survive? What happens to plants if we lost our soil food web?
nutrient cycling and exchange occurs in the soil between microorganismsDependent on the sun and living organisms in the soil for nutrients Without it, plants won’t get useable nutrients that are needed for photosynthesis and die
Q8. What is the take home message of the story There’s a Hair in my Dirt! Written by Gary Larson?
Harriet loved nature but didn’t understand it (killed the snake to save the mouse but then the mouse killed her)
Q9. What is wrong with simplifying or decreasing the number of interactions in an ecosystem?
Simplifying it makes it more vulnerable to insects/pestsComplexity improves resiliencyAlso makes them more vulnerable to bigger disturbances
Q10. Thirty years after the eruption of Mt St Helens in Washington, how well have the animal species adapted to the total devastation and loss of forest habitat? Provide an example when answering this question.
Nature is better at maintaining connections even after a major disturbanceEx) tiger salamander has adapted to spending more time in water because the forests were devastated
Q1. Describe the Native American tribal presence in the state of Washington today? In Washington, where do you find the smallest and where do you find the largest tracts of contiguous land area still owned by a tribe or confederation of tribes? Speculate why you think there is this pattern of tribal land ownership.
32 reservations (10 federally recognized) and 200,000 indigenous people A lot in seattle but many are migrating east because thats where the reservations are because its less desirable land
Q2. Compare and contrast the culture of Coastal Tribes and the Plateau (interior) Tribes? Why did they have such different lifestyles? (What was their primary food source, where did they get their food, how did they get along with other tribes?)
Coastal: along the water, got food from oceans (water), kept to themselvesPlateu: have horses so they go out and get food (livestock), caused a lot of warsDifferent because of location
Q3. Why were non-timber forest products so valuable to Native Americans? Describe the broad array of non-timber forest products that can be produced from materials collected in the forest.
Thats all they really had because society wasnt advanced.
They needed it for food (sap, resin) and medicine as well as cover and protection
Q4. In the article “Native American Influences on the Development of Forest Ecosystems”, the authors suggest that Native Americans were deliberately managing their lands. What evidence did they use to suggest that active management of the landscapes was occurring? Describe one of the activities practiced by Native Americans.
Evidence: fire managementThey needed to know how to get stuff out of the forest
Q5. What did a pre-colonial forest look like compared to what it looks like after the colonialists started to manage them or what scientists think that it looked like in the past? Provide one example of a difference that existed between pre- and post-colonial forests.
Pre: kind of like parks with little canopy cover.
THey had big trees but not the small saplings because they were burnt for fire.
Q6. It is common knowledge that Native Americans used fire to manage their landscapes. How do we know that this really happened? Why was fire used by Native Americans?
Becuase they had burnt down areas. They used it as a tool to put nutrients in the ground, but it actually led to more fires
Q8. What was the role of the buffalo in the life of Native Americans living in the Great Plains region of the US? What was the US government policy towards the buffalo and what was one impact of this policy?
Used every part of the buffalo (fur for clothes, meat for food, bones for tools)US govt tried to exterminate buffalo to get native americans out of forests and into reservations
Q10. The ‘Non-timber forest product opportunities in Alaska’ report provided a list of plant products with historical or contemporary subsistence uses (Table 1, page 4) and those with commercial harvest potential (Table 2, page 15). What plant products are found on both lists and how similar are the uses made by the subsistence users compared to the commercial harvesters for each product? Three patterns (similar or different) stand out when comparing the 2 lists, list one pattern that was apparent to you? What might explain the different patterns?
red alder, alaska yellow cedar, willow, western red cedar, western red cedarexplanation: commercial uses
4) Several examples were provided in class why land-use changes occurring in forests increase the chance that humans will be exposed to a disease organism.
Mention and provide one explanation that Kristiina mentioned in class. Why would an intact forest be less suitable for a disease organism and the disease vector or carrier compared to cleared land?
cutting down forests prevents water flowmosquitoes love this and carry diseaseintact forests prevent diseases like these
7) Are we able to control the spread of malaria where it is commonly found? What is one approach that can be used to prevent the spread of malaria and how successful is it as a control measure?
we are still having trouble with the spread of malariaone approach is DDT. it is very successful but it is also harmful to plants and animals. One way that may work is putting wax over wetlands
8) The highland areas of Kenya used to have few cases of malaria (In the Case 4.4 in the book) but now malarial outbreaks are common. What explains the higher incidence of malaria in these highlands and why? What environments are good and what are not good breeding locations for mosquitoes? What is the link between malaria incidence and the planting of a non-native Eucalyptus in Kenya? What is a solution for the malaria problems in Kenya?
rainfall – mosquitos love water and humiditystanding water is perfect habitatsolution: eucalyptus can absorb water really quickly
found that spotted owls were decreasing
recession in the early 90s, pressure to harvest to keep local farmers from going under
5. Personal relationships
guy who had a soft spot for the owls
6. What were some other conflicts or issues that influenced the decisions of individuals in the God Squad group?
Tradition. the PNW was relient on timber
7. What influence did the God Squad group have on the management of endangered species?
They had the ability to make exemptions to the act, eventually didnt and sold timber as long as they made sure not to hurt endangered species
1. How would you define forest health? What are 2 indicators that let you know that a forest is not healthy?
Healthy people can’t have diseases but healthy ecosystems can have dead treesIndicators: high mortality rate, too high of tree densityhealthy ecosystem produces at a constant rate and doesn’t suffer from reductions in productivity
What are the similarities and differences between diseases that affect plants and those that affect humans?
similarties: ozone bad for both, disease can affect whole body/whole tree/any part of eitherdifferences: huamns and tress…
3. Why do fungi cause more tree diseases than bacteria? Explain your answer.
Bacteria are in the air, affect humans more than treesfungi get into roots and have enzymes that break down important shit in trees
4. What are the 2 most common biotic causes of disease in trees growing in the Pacific Northwest US?
viruses, fungi, parastic plants
. What are 2 effects of tree diseases in a forest? What explains why tree diseases cause these effects in a forest? What is one positive impact of tree diseases in a forest?
positive: new jobs, creates space for new species to improve bio diversityNegative: kills trees
How might the presence of root rot fungi impact recreational users of forests?
kills the base of the tree so it could fall over and kill recreational users
7. What is the impact of clear cutting, thinning of a forest, and fire suppression on tree diseases?
clear cutting makes trees more susceptible to disease because it is weaker with less nutrients availableFire supression reduces dwarf mistletoes though
8. Why are eastern Washington forests considered to be unhealthy?
100 years of fire supression, led to dense forests Plus beetles made the trees weaker
. List 2 common natural disturbance agents that affect forest health. List 2 human disturbance agents that affect forest health. Are there any disturbance agents that are both natural and human disturbance agents?
What is the most important tool of the forest pathologist?
hatchet – to cut down the tree and figure out why it died
1) Paul Collier articulated 4 traps that he felt confined and marginalized people to live in poverty. One of these traps is wars and civil conflict. Based on what you heard in class, provide one reason why war would confine people to live in poverty?
If there is a war people are hiding so businesses shut down which leads to poverty
2) Several explanations were given in class for why forests become important locations for humans to survive or make a living during a war or civil conflict? Mention one reason and describe why it is important.
During war it is hard to get stuff because business shuts down so get resources from forestseasy to hide
3) What is the link between Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte, a candy maker (Nicholas Appert) and war?
Nicholas was important to Nap. because he came up with a way to stop soldiers from dying from hunger or scurvy – put food in a bottle and preserved itProblem: hard to find bottles in forests
3) What is the link between Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte, a candy maker (Nicholas Appert) and war?
Nicholas was important to Nap. because he came up with a way to stop soldiers from dying from hunger or scurvy – put food in a bottle and preserved itProblem: hard to find bottles in forests/heavy
Contrast the importance of forests as a safety valve for people fleeing civil strife in Zaire (DRC) and in Rwanda? Explain the importance or lack of importance of forests within each country.
Rwanda has high pop density so hiding in forests was tough because so many of them. Went to Zaire because more forest cover
5. What are the implications of having a large proportion of a countries population already living in rural areas during armed conflicts? Do you have the same problems if a large proportion of the population lived in urban areas during an armed conflict? Are you better off living in rural or urban areas during a civil conflict?
Rural people are better off in conflict because theyre already used to using nature to survivebetter off in rural because urban are more likely to be attacked
6) Why can wars increase conservation success? Provide an example when answering this question. Does the increased conservation success last after a war?
Because people kept out of these areas, used for military purposeex) GermanyStops after the war
Explain why wildlife populations are especially threatened by war? Provide 2 different explanations of how wildlife populations are drastically reduced during a war.
No one is left to protect the wildlife during these times from people who are hungry and lack survival skills
8. Why are forests exploited for timber during and after wars? Use an example to explain your answer.
during: used for wealth, ships, etcafter: used to pay off war reparationex) Germany from WWII
What are 2 effects that have been documented to occur in forests when they become refugee sites during armed conflict or war?
Illegal hunting, trading of wildlife for money
10. Why are chemicals used during wars? Why do these chemicals impact human health, health of the environment and the economic condition of a country? What, if any, short- and long-term impacts can occur in forests as a result of the use of chemicals during civil conflict?
chemicals cause health problems and kill foreststhey affect the soil long termused to clear out forests so you can see enemy and remove a food source
1. In the terrestrial areas, what ecosystem component contains the most carbon compared to other carbon pools in that ecosystem? Are these pools living or dead/non-living parts?
oceans (over 90%)
2. What are 2 dominant ways that humans alter the carbon cycle? Of the 2 ways that you mentioned, which do you think has the greatest impact on shifting carbon from one pool to another pool (fossil and non-fossil carbon)?
Land use uses carbonfossil fuel utilization uses carbon
3. Do landfills have a similar potential as soils to store carbon over longer time scales? Why do you think that this type of comparison is false and should not be made?
soils need carbon to survive, it should be put in to sustain lifelandfills can store carbon but not sustain life
4. Why does the chemical composition of a tree matter when we are talking about the potential of forests to sequester a lot of carbon? Explain your answer.
It determines how long the carbon will remain in the tree
5. What is the biggest challenge that conventional agriculture faces if agriculture wants to contribute to increasing the storage of carbon in terrestrial carbon pools? How did the indigenous communities in Central and South America deal with this problem?
when you harvest plants, nutrients (including carbon) are removedthey added terra preta soils to improve nutrients
6. What is one way that carbon sequestration can be increased in terrestrial ecosystems? What practice or activity will decrease the amount of carbon sequestered or accumulated in terrestrial areas?
planting in forests because it increases photosynthesiscutting down trees would decrese italso burning a tree or using fossil fuels
7. When plant materials are composted, what is the final end product obtained at the end of the composting cycle and what term is used to describe its chemistry? What natural ecosystem process does composting mimic and how does composting differ from this natural process? Why would you have a problem of only composting paper?
end product: organic material used as soil called lingindecomposition is faster than composting and generates heat and co2paper would completely deompose because it is cellulose not lignin
8. How similar or different are simple sugars, cellulose, lignin, rayon, and a pair of jeans (clothing)? Provide an example of a product produced from each.
simple surgars and starch are sweet and low in carboncellulose and lignin are high in carboncellulose can make products such as jeans or rayon
9. How diverse are the product streams that can be produced from wood wastes? Be able to explain the rationale for your answer.
very diversecan be transformed biofuels, steam and energy, compost, paper, wood
10. Iceland is working on increasing the amount of carbon that they sequester as a country. Would Iceland have to plant native or exotic tree species to increase their carbon sequestration in their boreal forests? What is a problem with implementing the answer you provided in the first part of the question?
Yes because they lost forest coverbring back exotic trees not traditionalproblem: require more carbon and and may alter ecosystem