ESRM Midterm 2

1) Please answer correctly, as it will be graded. The subject of this course is _______.
A) Environmental Science
B) Horticulture and Landscaping
C) Advanced Biometrics
D) Chemical Thermodynamics
2) Which of the following fuels is considered a “transition fuel”?
A) Petroleum
B) Natural gas
C) Coal
D) Solar energy
3) How can volcanic eruptions cool the climate?
A) Dust and associated clouds reflect sunlight back into space.
B) The heat of a volcano can never be hot enough to heat the air.
C) Dust and associated clouds absorb the sunlight before it reaches earth.
D) Volcanic eruptions will heat the climate instead of cooling the climate.
4) Organic chemicals are _________ -based compounds.
A) carbon
B) nitrogen
C) oxygen
D) hydrogen
5) What was the cause of the “dust bowls” in the 1930s?
A) high water use
B) soil degradation
C) meteorites
D) hurricanes
6) Biological control is the use of _______ and _______ to control agricultural pests.
A) pesticides, fertilizers
B) arsenic, organic compounds
C) carbon, other plant compounds
D) predators, parasites
7) ______ is a product of uranium decay as well as an indoor air pollutant.
A) Radon
B) Radium
C) Plutonium
D) Lead
8) Water demand during the past half-century has ______ as the human population has more than _______.
A) doubled, tripled
B) tripled, doubled
C) quadrupled, doubled
D) quadrupled, tripled
9) Earth’s orbit is__________.
A) inverse
B) a figure 8
C) elliptical
D) circular
10) Methane can be produced by certain kinds of _______ that live where there is no ________.
A) viruses, carbon dioxide
B) viruses, oxygen
C) bacteria, oxygen
D) bacteria, carbon dioxide
11) The United States gets most of its electric power from which source?
A) coal
B) geothermal
C) solar
D) wind
12) The major human activities causing a decline in fish populations are:
A) overfishing, deforestation, and habitat destruction.
B) overfishing, pollution, and habitat destruction.
C) pollution and habitat destruction.
D) overfishing, pollution, and deforestation.
13) Upwellings cause nutrients to be ________.
A) locked in ocean sediments
B) mixed in ocean sediments with shellfish
C) released from ocean sediments into the water column
D) dissolved and disintegrated from ocean plants
14) Ice floats because ___________.
A) it becomes less dense when it freezes
B) it becomes more dense when it freezes
C) it has a flat surface that blocks the liquid water
D) it has the same density as air
15) A(n) _________ is an underground layer of rocks, sand or gravel that contains usable groundwater and releases it in significant amounts.
A) water table
B) effluent
C) aquifer
D) perennial stream
16) Intertidal areas _______.
A) flood and drain twice a day
B) flood, but don’t drain
C) never flood and drain
D) only flood after a rainstorm.
17) Milankovitch suggested that climatic cycles of about 40,000 and 20,000 years could result from changes in Earth’s _________.
A) density and structure
B) tilt and wobble
C) overall climate
D) inner core temperature
18) What is thermal pollution?
A) Excess sunlight exposure.
B) Heat released into water or the air, producing undesirable effects.
C) Poor insulation in homes, resulting in heat loss.
D) Overuse of electrical heating during the winter season, and electrical plants having to produce more electricity.
19) Isotopes are atoms of an element that are chemically the same, but have different atomic weights because they have different numbers of ______.
A) protons
B) electrons
C) neutrons
D) quarks
20) A person flying over the Chernobyl site two days after the explosion most probably experienced a(n) ________ to radioactive substances.
A) chronic exposure
B) sub-chronic exposure
C) acute exposure
D) sub-acute exposure
21) As a toxic substance moves through the food chain, it becomes _________ in concentration; the __________organism in the food chain will likely receive more harm than a ________ organism.
A) biomagnified, top level, bottom level
B) reduced, top level, bottom level
C) biomagnified, bottom level, middle level
D) biomagnified, bottom level, top level
22) In most parts of the world, what is the relationship between higher living standards and meat?
A) Higher living standards mean a greater demand for meat.
B) Higher living standards mean the price of meat will drop.
C) Higher living standards mean no change in demand for meat.
D) Higher living standards mean less demand for meat.
23) Irrigation most commonly leads to ________ of farmland.
A) eutrophication
B) desertification
C) volatilization
D) salinization
24) Acid runoff is most associated with which of the following mining activities?
A) Underground mines
B) Strip mining
C) Metamorphic soil digging
D) Close pit mining
25) The three most toxic metals to humans are:
A) mercury, thallium, and lead
B) mercury, nickel, and gold
C) lead, nickel, and cadmium
D) nickel, platinum, and selenium
26) Aquaculture is ____________.
A) the profession of collecting clean water
B) the study of dominant marine species
C) the cultivation of things that live in water
D) growing plants in a liquid nutrient solution instead of soil
27) A carcinogen is:
A) a mutation causing a change in the frequency of a gene in a population.
B) a toxin that increases the risk of cancer.
C) a gene disorder with the potential to cause birth defects.
D) disordering of the genes during crossover in meiosis.
28) In the U.S., the single sector which consumes the greatest portion of the water supply is ________.
A) agriculture
B) municipal water use
C) electric power plants
D) waste disposal
29) What is the estimated range of Earth’s carrying capacity of human beings?
A) 0.5 – 50 billion
B) 0.5 – 800 billion
C) 7 – 300 billion
D) 500 – 900 billion
30) Which of the following are all renewable sources of energy?:
A) Natural gas, coal, water
B) Geothermal, nuclear, soil
C) Solar, wind, wood
D) Geothermal, solar, oil
31) What is the leading cause of desertification?
A) Global warming
B) Poor farming practices
C) Geography
D) Drought
32) The U.S. Water Resources Council estimates that water use in the United States by the year 2020 may exceed surface water resources by ________ percent.
A) 2%
B) 13%
C) 21%
D) Over 30%
33) Synergism is the interaction of:
A) different types of substances, resulting in a combined effect that’s less than the additional effect of each substance individually.
B) different types of substances, resulting in a combined effect that’s equal to the effect of each substance individually.
C) different types of substances, resulting in a combined effect that’s greater than the additional effect of each substance individually.
D) similar types of substances, resulting in a combined effect that’s less than the additional effect of each substance individually.
34) Water has a ________ capacity to absorb and store heat.
A) low
B) neutral
C) high
D) zero
35) The effects of flooding are more destructive today than in the past because __________.
A) levees are too expensive to build in all of the appropriate locations.
B) the use of levees has been determined to be an unsound engineering practice.
C) more buildings are constructed on flood plains.
D) soil with plant cover is ineffective in absorbing excess water.
36) _______ happens when runoff carries fertilizers to water bodies and causes the growth of aquatic algae.
A) Eutrophication
B) Sedimentation
C) Toxification
D) Salinization
37) Ocean water may be treated to remove salt in the process of:
A) decrystallization
B) salination
C) desalination
D) dechlorination
38) The Southern Oscillation is known informally as:
A) El Nino
B) Decadal Oscillation
C) El Toro
D) El Christo
40) The majority of the pesticides found in U.S. waters are_________.
A) nitrocides
B) fungicides
C) insecticides
D) herbicides
4) What is thermal pollution?
A) Excess sunlight exposure.
B) Heat released into water or the air producing undesirable effects.
C) Poor insulation in homes resulting in heat loss.
D) Overuse of electrical heating during the winter season, and electrical plants having to produce more electricity.
6) What is a terminator gene?
A) A gene with the ability to change an annual to a perennial.
B) A gene that is never expressed.
C) A gene that prevents plants from flowering.
D) A gene that makes seeds sterile.
7) The sea level is now more than 120 meters higher than at the peak of the last ice age, and satellite measurements indicate that it is rising about ________ a year.
A) 1/20 inch
B) 1/8 inch
C) 2 feet
D) 10 feet
10) Fish are the main source of animal protein for about ______ people worldwide.
A) 10 thousand
B) 1 million
C) 250 million
D) 1 billion
17) The least environmentally friendly energy is from__________.
A) oil
B) coal
C) natural gas
D) geothermal
18) Albedo is _________.
A) the percentage of light received by a surface that is reflected and scattered
B) he percentage of light that is absorbed by the surface
C) the percentage of light refracted by the atmosphere
D) the percentage of light absorbed into an object
19) Mobile sources of pollution originate from _________.
A) transportation
B) farming
C) forestry
D) lakes
20) Why does the population generally disapprove of nuclear power sources?
A) It takes too much energy and concrete to produce a power plant.
B) Geothermal energy is preferred.
C) Nuclear power is renewable.
D) Fear of exposure to radioactivity.
21) Irrigation can lead to ________ of farmland.
A) eutrophication
B) desertification
C) volatilization
D) salinization
24) 97% of all water on earth is in the oceans. Which of the following is the correct order of the Earth’s water storage compartments?:
A) Oceans, atmosphere, lakes, groundwater, rivers, ice caps.
B) Oceans, groundwater, rivers, ice caps, atmosphere, lakes.
C) Oceans, ice caps, groundwater, lakes, atmosphere, rivers.
D) Oceans, lakes, ice caps, groundwater, atmosphere, rivers.
26) In 1989, an oil tanker spilled 11 million gallons of oil into the Prince William Sound. What was the name of the ship?
A) Chevron Journey
B) Exxon Valdez
C) Exxon Mobile
D) Deepwater Horizon
29) Overdraft occurs when we take ________.
A) take less ground water than can be replaced naturally
B) take an equal amount of ground water as can be replaced
C) take more ground water than can be replaced naturally
D) replace the ground water we have taken with polluted water.
31) According to the textbook, when are we expected to reach peak oil production?
A) 1950-2020 AD
B) 2020-2050 AD
C) 2050-2080 AD
D) 2080-2150 AD
33) Geothermal energy is defined as ___________.
A) energy originating from wind.
B) natural heat from the interior of the Earth.
C) energy from the sun.
D) energy generated by the splitting or merging of the nuclei of atoms.
35) The big three plants that most people in the world eat are:
A) potatoes, rice, and wheat.
B) rice, wheat, and corn.
C) cassava, corn, and wheat.
D) potatoes, corn, and rice.
36) What is the main alcohol found in biofuel?
A) methane
B) propane
C) ethanol
D) butanol
37) Which of the following includes the other three?:
A) Risk assessment
B) Risk management
C) Risk analysis
D) Risk communication
39) The oceans are warmed by the sun in the tropics. These warmed waters expand and flow north (in the Northern Hemisphere) along the surface, bringing their heat to northern latitudes. As they reach the North, these warm waters give up their heat and, as they cool, condense, become heavier, and sink, returning in the depths to the tropics. This global circulation is called the __________.
A) ocean graveyard
B) ocean highway
C) ocean stairwell
D) ocean conveyor
40) The United States, with 5% of the world’s population, uses about _____ of the total energy?
A) 2%
B) 5%
C) 20%
D) 50%
2) From GoPost. Since implementation of the “one child policy” in 1979, China has achieved the slowest birth rate of any country in the world.
3) From GoPost. According to a New York Times article, the US produces ____ tons of food waste per year.
A) 5 million
B) 10 million
C) 30 million
D) 1.2 billion
4) Which of the following is not a predicted outcome of global climate change?
A) More extreme weather patterns
B) Ocean water becomes alkaline
C) Extinction of some organisms
D) Rising sea levels
5) Methane is produced by certain kinds of___________that cannot live where there is ________.
A) Viruses; carbon dioxide
B) Viruses; oxygen
C) Bacteria; oxygen
D) Bacteria; carbon dioxide
6) A curious and historicallly important climate change linked to variations in ocean currents is the Southern Oscillation, known informally as _______.
A) La Nina
B) El Nino
C) Milankovitch cycles
D) Gulf Stream
7) During the last two million years or so, the climate of the Earth has:
A) Slowly increased in temperature
B) Slowly decreased in humidity
C) Been very constant
D) Swung sharply both up and down in temperature
8) The 19__s were the warmest decade in the 142 years that temperatures have been recorded, and in the last 1,000 years, according to geologic data.
A) 90
B) 80
C) 70
D) 60
9) Greenhouse warming is expected to cause which of the following climate changes?
A) Increased possibility of droughts in the northern temperate latitude
B) Hotter drier summers
C) Wetter winters
D) All of the above
10) The oceans cover_______of the Earth’s surface.
A) 20%
B) 50%
C) 70%
D) 90%
11) The goal of the Marine Mammal Protection Act is:
A) Optimum sustainable population
B) Maximum sustainable yield
C) Establishing carrying capacity
D) maintaining aquaculture production
12) Shrimp farms threaten the existence of:
A) Oldgrowth forests
B) Mangrove forests
C) Sand bars
D) Coral Reefs
13) Currently aquaculture provides more than ____ of all fish harvest annually
A) 20%
B) 10%
C) 30%
D) 50%
14) The main reason/s fish populations are shrinking are ______.
A) overharvesting
B) habitat destruction
C) pollution
D) All of the above
16) Fish are abundant where their food is abundant and, ultimately, where there is high production of ______ at the base of the food chain.
A) algae
B) predators
C) keystone species
D) omnivores
18) What does B.O.D. stand for?
A) Barometer of Decomposition
B) Bacterial Oxygen Dependency
C) Biological Oxygen Depletion
D) Biochemical Oxygen Demand
20) Which of the following is NOT usually associated with eutrophication?
A) Increased heavy metal concentrations
B) Algal blooms
C) Increased nutrient concentrations
D) Reduced photosynthesis in the water column
21) The largest groundwater deposit in the world is the:
A) Ogallala Aquifer
B) Great Basin Aquifer
C) Rocky Mountain Aquifer
D) Great Lakes Aquifer
22) In deciding whether a water supply is polluted, we generally consider several things:
A) what we intend to use the water for
B) its ecological effects
C) Both A and B
D) None of the above
24) Forecasts put the peak in world crude oil production (about 90 million barrels per day) between the years?
A) 2020 and 2050
B) 2010 and 2090
C) 2010 and 2020
D) 2000 and 2010
25) Which of these fossil fuels is the worldOs most abundant and most polluting?
A) Oil
B) Natural gas
C) Coal
D) Petroleum
26) This is the fastest worldOs growing energy source, doubling every two years.
A) Motion energy
B) Geothermal
C) Sound waves
D) Photovoltaic
27) Which of the following radiations, does not belong to the three major kind of nuclear radiation?
A) X Rays
B) Gamma rays
C) Alpha particles
D) Beta particles
29) Today, in developing countries, biomass (mainly wood) provides about ______ of the total energy supply
A) 5%
B) 20%
C) 35%
D) 80%
31) Which is the layer of accumulation in the soil?
A) O horizon
B) A horizon
C) B horizon
D) C horizon
32) America is a leader in the percent of no-till acreage in the world
A) T
B) F
33) What is not involved in biological control of agricultural pests?
A) Fertilization
B) Parasites
C) Bacillus thuringiensis
D) Predators
34) Superhybrids can require too much water and nutrients from marginal sites.
A) T
B) F
35) What caused the Dust Bowl?
A) Plowing
B) Wind storms
C) Drought
D) Tornadoes
A, B, C
36) Evaluating the potential harm to humans of a particular chemical requires determining
A) the sources and amounts of exposure.
B) the amounts absorbed, distributed throughout the body & excreted.
C) whether a child or an adult is exposed.
D) all of these answers
37) Risk is expressed as a probability of suffering from
A) disease.
B) economic loss.
C) environmental damage.
D) all of these answers
38) Dose and response may be affected by the chemical’s
A) solubility characteristics.
B) Biomagnifications & persistence.
C) antagonistic and synergistic interactions with other chemicals.
D) all of these answers
39) A threshold dose-response model
A) implies there is a dose below which no detectable harmful effects occur.
B) errs on the side of safety.
C) implies that each dose of ionizing radiation or toxic chemical carries a risk of causing harm.
D) is useful for assessing chronic toxicity.
40) Risk assessment and risk-benefit analyses are useful for all of the following except they
A) focus on areas that need more research.
B) help regulators decide how money for reducing risks should be allocated.
C) identify significant hazards & organize available information.
D) eliminate uncertainties about planning the future.
2) From GoPost. In China, the ratio of males to females under age 15 is ___, and in the USA, it is _____.
A) 1.04 to 1; 1.13 to 1
B) 1.13 to 1; 1.04 to 1
3) From GoPost. What is the most efficient way to approach energy supply problems
A) build more renewable energy systems
B) tax people on their energy use
C) reduce energy use
D) give government subsidies to increase use of photovoltaics
4) Which of the following is NOT a greenhouse gas?
A) Methane
B) Water vapor
C) Carbon dioxide
D) Sulfur dioxide
5) How much of an increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide has occurred since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution?
A) 12%
B) 32%
C) 52%
D) 70%
6) The thinning of sea ice is having a large impact on the ____ population.
A) Whale
B) Sea lion
C) Polar Bear
D) Dolphin
7) Some scientist have suggested that we could cool the climate by injecting ______ into the upper atmosphere, just as volcanic eruptions do
A) ash
B) sulfur oxides
C) nitrogen oxides
D) hot lava
8) Use of CFCs as propellants was banned in the United States in ________.
A) 2000
B) 1995
C) 1978
D) 1966
10) Soon after the Kyoto Conference the United States fianally agreed to lower emissions about 7% below 1990 levels by 2010. However, it was realized that emissions of CO2 in 2010 would be _____ higher than the 1990 emissions.
A) 10%
B) 20%
C) 30%
D) 40%
11) Continental shelves provide _________ of the fishery harvest.
A) 25%
B) 32%
C) 50%
D) 90%
12) Upwellings provide fish with:
A) Turbidity
B) Fresh warm water
C) Nutrient rich water
D) Predators
13) More people die from ________ than shark deaths on an annual average.
A) Lightning
B) Elephants
C) Snake bite
D) All of the above
14) Marine fish are an important food, and world harvests of fish are large, but fish populations on which these harvest depend are __________.
A) easily exploited
B) generally declining
C) difficult to restore
D) All of the above
15) We desperately need new approaches to forecasting acceptable harvests and workable international agreements to ______.
A) maintain current populations
B) increase catch
C) limit catch
D) decrease pollution
16) The ________ Bay, AmericaOs largest estuary, was one of the worldOs great fisheries, famous for oysters and crabs and as the breeding and spawning ground for bluefish, sea bass, and many other commercially valuable species.
A) Chesapeake
B) San Francisco
C) Tampa
D) Hudson
18) Massive and rapid algae growth is stimulated by the addition of _______ to surface water bodies.
A) Carbon dioxide
B) Oxygen
C) Nitrogen and phosphorus
D) Aerobic bacteria
19) Approximately ______ of the water vapor passing over the United States every day falls as precipitation (as rain, snow, hail, or sleet).
A) 1%
B) 5%
C) 10%
D) 20%
20) The average person in the United States uses ______ gallons of water per day.
A) 100
B) 700
C) 1000
D) 1500
21) The greatest use of fresh water is for:
A) Industry
B) Homes
C) Small businesses
D) Irrigation
24) Water and oil are the most abundant fluids in EarthOs upper crust?
A) True
B) False
27) Which of the following methods is not a current ways to store energy?
A) Mechanically by moving matter
B) Chemically
C) Electrically
D) All of the above methods are currently used to store energy
28) _______ is the only naturally occurring fissionable form, and therefore it is essential to the production of nuclear energy.
A) Uranium 238
B) Uranium 235
C) Uranium 234
D) Uranium 233
30) What is the most consumed food type in America?
A) Grain
B) Fruit
C) Meat
D) Vegetables
31) What is not always a negative aspect of farming?
A) Desertification
B) Salinization
C) Fertilization
D) Loss of biodiversity
32) ____________ happens when sediments carry fertilizers which causes growth of aquatic algae
A) Eutrophication
B) Sedimentation
C) Toxicification
D) Salinization
33) The majority of pesticides found in U.S. waters are:
A) Arsenic
B) Fungicides
C) Herbicides
D) Ferticides
34) The greatest increase in acreage of genetically modified crops has been seen in which species?
A) Corn
B) Soybean
C) Wheat
D) Cotton
35) What percent of the daily calories consumed by humans is provided by the six most consumed plant species
A) 40%
B) 60%
C) 80%
D) 25%
37) Teratogens
A) are fatal to humans in low doses.
B) cause birth defects.
C) are harmful because they are irritating to skin or lungs.
D) cause mutations.
40) Dose-response curves
A) show the effects of various doses of toxic agents on a group of test organisms.
B) are extrapolated using mathematical models to project possible effects of high doses.
C) are extrapolated from humans to other primates.
D) all of these answers
2) According to a post on the discussion list quoting John Tierney, the primary beneficiary of some recycling programs are _____.
A) people involved in waste handling politics
B) producers of non-recycled materials
C) the public
D) the environment
3) According to a post on the discussion last, bottled water contains more potentially harmful ____ than tap water.
A) microorganisms
B) phthalates
C) lead
D) dilithium
4) Carcinogen exposure increases the risk of developing:
A) Cardiovascular disease
B) Cancer
C) Asbestosis
D) Mercury Poisoning
5) The interaction of different substances where the combined effect is greater than the sum of the effect of the separate substances:
A) dose response
B) synergism
C) particulates
D) biomagnification
6) Biomagnification is associated with all of the following except:
A) the accumulation of chemicals in organisms
B) higher toxin concentrations at successive trophic levels
C) the development of tolerance to a pesticide or toxin
D) biomagnification can occur in both aquatic and terrestrial habitats
7) All of the following are infectious agents except:
A) giardiasis
B) salmonella
C) dioxin
D) malaria
8) All of the following were once primary sources of lead except:
A) paint
B) plumbing pipes
C) gasoline
D) air ventilation ducts
9) How a chemical affects an individual depends on:
A) exposure time series
B) the dose of the exposure
C) form of the chemical
D) absorption sequence
10) Salinization is:
A) buildup of salt in water
B) buildup of salt in soil
C) buildup of salt in air
D) none of the above
11) The single most effective way to reduce soil erosion is to use:
A) advanced plant regeneration
B) contour plowing
C) strip cropping
D) crop rotation
12) In order to prevent over-grazing in a farmland situation it is important to:
A) allow cattle to eat in one area
B) rotate cattle around the farm
C) rotate cattle within the same area
D) allow cattle to graze wherever they want
13) Soil erosion became a concern in the U.S. following:
A) World War I
B) World War II
C) The Dust Bowl
D) The Industrial Revolution
14) IPM is a(n) ___________ approach to pest management
A) unsuccessful
B) ecosystem
C) chemical
D) eradication
15) Use of the pesticide DDT is now banned:
A) throughout the world
B) in Africa
C) from agricultural lands
D) in the US
16) Which of the following is not a fossil fuel?
A) coal
B) oil
C) natural gas
D) geothermal energy
17) What was the main source of heat in the US until the end of the 20th Century?
A) oil
B) gas
C) wood
D) coal
18) Which is considered the most polluting of the fossil fuels?
A) coal
B) oil
C) natural gas
D) wood
19) The primary energy source that is most used in the US for producing electricity is
A) water power
B) nuclear power
C) coal
D) crude oil
20) Which of the following offers the most potential in terms of reducing the energy problem in the US?
A) geothermal power
B) wave power
C) nuclear power
D) conservation
21) All of the following are features of passive solar design except
A) adobe walls and flagstone floor used for heat storage
B) evergreen (coniferous) trees blocking sun all year
C) photovoltaic cells on the roof of a house
D) summer cooling vents in the roof
22) A type of biomass energy is:
A) tar sands
B) crude oil
C) wood
D) fuel cell
23) Fuel cells use (i)_______________ for energy and release (ii)_______________ as waste.
A) i. hydrogen ii. water
B) i. oxygen ii. carbon dioxide
C) i. hydrogen ii. hydrocarbons
D) i. hydrogencarbons ii. carbon monoxide and water
24) Use of groundwater at a rate faster that it is naturally re-supplied is called:
A) an overdraft
B) a water budget
C) an influent stream
D) an underdraft
30) What is an aquifer?
A) a canal or system to transport water over long distances
B) zone of hot, pressurized groundwater
C) permeable rock that holds and transmits water
D) nonporous rock
2) According to a GoPost on the discussion list what is necessary for demographic transition from stage 2 to 3 _____.
A) The industrialization rate must increase past the replacement maximum
B) parents must be required to have only one child
C) parents must believe that fewer children will lead to greater benefits for them and their children
D) death rates must increase to match birth rates
3) According to a GoPost about an article by Mireya Navaro in the New York Times, what percent of total waste is food waste?
A) 13 percent
B) 26%
C) 47%
D) 65.2%
4) Which of the following terms refers to the accumulation of a substance in living tissue as it moves through the food web:
A) dose response
B) synergism
C) particulates
D) biomagnification
5) What is synergism?
A) the association of two dissimilar species, to the benefit of both
B) the transmission of heat energy in greenhouses
C) the addition of herbicides to fertilizers in order to make crops pest-resistant
D) the interaction of different substances such that the effect combined is greater than the sum of the separate effects
6) Once methyl mercury is biomagnified within a food chain, which contains higher amounts of mercury?
A) big fish that eat little fish
B) smaller fish that eat algae
C) big fish that eat algae
D) smaller fish that eat other small fish
7) Which of the following is the most toxic of the human-made chemicals in the environment?
B) Aldrin
D) Dioxin
8) Lead and mercury affect the:
A) eyes
B) ears
C) brain
D) spine
9) No-till agriculture has___________soil loss in the United States.
A) increased
B) decreased
C) caused no change in
D) None of the above
10) Farming uses up the____________ in soil.
A) nutrients
B) loam
C) acid
D) humus
11) IPM stands for:
A) Integrated Pollution Management
B) Integrated Pest Management
C) International Pest Manual
D) International Pollution Management
12) Most of the world’s food is provided by only______plant species.
A) 3
B) 14
C) 42
D) 420
13) BT :
A) attacks many pests and is not safe for humans
B) attacks only specific pests and is safe for humans
C) attacks all pests and harms soil fertility
D) causes harm to humans and animals
14) Which of the following is NOT a major genetically modified crop?
A) corn
B) soybeans
C) wheat
D) cotton
15) How much of the total world energy does the US consume?
A) 5%
B) 10%
C) 15%
D) 20%
16) Which of the following types of energy is not renewable?
A) sun
B) water
C) wind
D) oil
17) Where does most of the coal in the US come from?
A) strip mining
B) underground mining
C) refineries
D) shelter beds
18) Fuel-cell-powered cars use ___________ as a fuel.
A) oxygen
B) hydrogen
C) carbon dioxide
D) sulfur dioxide
19) When discussing sources of fossil fuels, a reserve can be defined as:
A) a source we can access now for a profit
B) the entire amount of a source available for use
C) the oil from shale that is accessed for sale
D) a useful mineral source
20) ___________ is the ability to move matter.
A) force
B) energy
C) power
D) distance
21) Half-life is:
A) half the expected age of a species
B) half of the time it takes to double the radiation released by an isotope
C) half of the time it takes to decompose a gram of biomass
D) the length of time for one-half of a isotope to decay to another form
26) Seawater is about _______salt.
A) 1%
B) 3.5%
C) 10%
D) 22%
27) Groundwater accounts for _____of all water used in the United States.
A) 1%
B) 20%
C) 40%
D) 60%
28) A high B.O.D. in a river indicates
A) that the water is very clean
B) that nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations are low
C) that carbon content is low
D) that the water quality of the river is poor
29) Open oceans are called:
A) Benthos
B) Pelagic Zones
C) Continental shelves
D) Coral reefs
30) Where do most fish we eat come from?
A) Continental shelves
B) Sand bars
C) Coral reefs
D) Upwellings
31) Algae does not grow in the ___________.
A) Benthos
B) Pelagic Zones
C) Continental shelves
D) Coral reefs
32) The Gulf Steam provides warmth to:
A) Northern Europe
B) China
C) Eastern Europe
D) United States
33) 20% of the nation’s commercial shellfish beds have been closed because of:
A) Low tides
B) Low water levels
C) Pollution
D) Sharks
35) The warmest year on record was:
A) 1995
B) 1998
C) 2002
D) 2005
36) The atmosphere of Venus and Mars is made up of mostly:
A) Carbon dioxide
B) Nitrogen
C) Ozone
D) Water Vapor
38) Which of the following activities reduces the emissions of nitrous oxide into the atmosphere?
A) Burning natural gas
B) Using less fertilizer
C) Using more fertilizer
D) Burning leaves
40) How much atmospheric carbon is emitted in the United States?
A) 10%
B) 20%
C) 30%
D) 35%
3) Fish are the main source of protein for ~ _______ of the population.
A) 0.75
B) 0.50
C) 0.33
D) 0.17
4) Name the three major nuclear radiation particles
A) gamma, alpha, beta
B) microwave, gamma, radiate
C) sonic, theta, alpha
D) radio wave, microwave, infrared
7) In the United States, at least ______% of the nationOs commercial shellfish beds have at times been closed (mostly temporarily) because of pollution.
A) 20
B) 5
C) 1
D) 80
11) _________ is found in trace amounts in the atmosphere.
A) carbon
B) nitrogen
C) oxygen
D) methane
12) Which species has caused the most controversy and greatest regulation of logging practices in the Pacific Northwest.
A) Grizzly Bear
B) Atlantic Salmon
C) Grey Wolf
D) Spotted Owl
13) A stream that only flows during or shortly after rainfall or during snowmelt may be called _____________.
A) annual
B) ephemeral
C) yearly
D) perennial
14) Fertilization can lead to _________, which increases the growth of aquatic algae.
A) salinization
B) erosion
C) eutrophication
D) sedimentation
15) Aerosols reduce the amount of sun that hits the earth by 10% leading to a 50% reduction in associated global warming. This is known as:
A) aerosol reduction
B) greenhouse reduction
C) global dimming
D) global warming
16) The upper surface of groundwater is called the:
A) top water
B) water table
C) surface layer
D) upper liquid
17) Irrigation commonly leads to ________ of farmland.
A) eutrophication
B) desertification
C) erosion
D) salinization
18) Contamination:
A) implies something unfit for a particular use through the introduction of undesirable materials.
B) is a substance that is poisonous (toxic) to people and other living things.
C) often leads to healthier ecosystems
D) is the interaction of different types of substances, resulting in a combined effect that’s greater than the additional effect of each substance individually
19) Farming can cause: .
A) a loss of biodiversity
B) an increase in soil carbon
C) an increase of biodiversity
D) a stabilization in the amount of toxic metals
20) Which soil layer contains organic and mineral materials?
A) A horizon
B) O horizon
C) C horizon
D) L horizon
22) A smoke stack releasing toxic metals is an example of a __________ source pollution.
A) mobile
B) released
C) point
D) continuous
23) Define synfuels.
A) liquid or gaseous fuel from solid fossil fuels
B) synthetically processed petroleum
C) liquid or gaseous fuels derived from decomposed organic matter
D) Steam energy combined with a synthetic fuel
24) About ________ percent of earthOs water is generally suitable for human use:
A) 50.00%
B) 30.00%
C) 1.00%
D) 0.00%
25) What are the 3 major forms of fossil fuels?
A) nuclear, oil, petroleum
B) diesel, oil, nuclear
C) oil, natural gas, coal
D) oil, diesel, biodiesel
26) Continental shelves are:
A) areas of seafloor spreading
B) the underwater edges of the continents
C) coral reef species architectural design
D) underwater caves
27) Aerosols are less than ____________ and because they are so small, they can remain in the atmosphere a very long time.
A) 10 microns
B) 10 centimeters
C) 10 meters
D) 10 micrometers
28) Due to bioaccumulation, mercury is consumed but not eliminated, so the final predator (such as bass) has a(n) ________________concentration of mercury.
A) high
B) low
C) unchanged
D) not enough information
29) A stream that flows all year is called a ___________ stream.
A) annual
B) ephemeral
C) yearly
D) perennial
30) ______ is used as the primary source of drinking water for nearly half the people in the United States.
A) Surface water
B) Groundwater
C) Desalinized water
D) Reclaimed water
31) A volcano erupts with a large amount of ash expelled. The temperature can be expected to:
A) decrease
B) increase
C) remain the same
D) not enough information
33) A “commons” is:
A) domestic territory, used by many nations
B) domestic territory, used by nationals only
C) international territory, used by many nations
D) international territory, used by domestics only
34) Earth’s energy balance is the balance between the amount of energy coming:
A) in from the sun and the amount of energy radiated out by the Earth.
B) in from the earth and the amount of energy radiated out by the sun.
C) in from the sun and the amount coming from the core.
D) from the core and the amount from the sun.
35) How much food does one person consume in America per year?
A) quarter ton
B) one ton
C) two tons
D) half ton
B or D
36) In ideal farming, the amount of soil lost would never be than the amount of new soil.
A) less, eroded
B) greater, produced
C) greater, lost
D) less, produced
38) A toxin is a:
A) an organism with the potential to cause birth defects
B) an organism that removes lead from the soil
C) substance that increases the risk of cancer
D) substance that is poisonous (toxic) to people and other living things.
40) Continental shelves make up only ________% of the oceans, yet provide more than ______ of the fishery harvest, and ______ of the worldOs fish catch are made in upwellings.
A) 10, 90, 1/2
B) 90, 10, 1/2
C) 90, 10, 1/10
D) 10, 90, 9/10
6) The open ocean is also known as:
A) pelagic zone
B) zone of accumulation
C) benthic zone
D) continental shelves
13) The human population is expected to _____ ; therefore agricultural production will need to _______.
A) decrease, slow down
B) triple, double
C) double, double
D) triple, triple
14) If you lived in the desert, you would wear ______ because it has a high albedo and would keep you cooler.
A) red
B) purple
C) black
D) white
17) Approximately what % of water on earth is fresh water?
A) 20
B) 45
C) 71
D) 3
20) What organic matter found in abundance in the seafloor could be a new source of natural gas?
A) methane hydrates
B) ethane
C) hydrogen sulfide
D) hydrocarbons
22) The Great Pacific Ocean Garbage Patch is about twice the size of ?
A) Alaska
B) Texas
C) Washington State
D) Florida
23) Which of the following is an example of passive solar energy use?
A) planting a deciduous tree in front of one’s home for more sunlight exposure in the winter and less sunlight exposure in the summer
B) collecting solar energy in solar panels for use in the home year round
C) putting photovoltaics on one’s rooftop to collect the sun’s energy
D) passing cold water through a solar collector to use as hot water
25) Wetlands are natural _____ that help ______ water; plants in wetlands trap ______ and _______.
A) filters, purify, sediments, toxins
B) filters, purify, concretions, toxins
C) filters, purify, sediments, vitamins
D) filters, destroy, sediments, toxins
27) DDT is stored in allowing the chemical to be transferred up the food chain.
A) livers and hearts of animals
B) soil
C) the mantle
D) fats and oils of animals
29) What are the three major crops produced in the world?
A) sugarcane, potatoes, wheat
B) soybean, corn, potatoes
C) corn, rice, potatoes
D) rice, corn, wheat
33) To be considered freshwater, seawater of 3.5% salt content must be desalinated to ______ % salt content.
A) 0.50
B) 0.05
C) 5.00
D) 50.00
36) Organic farming is to produce food without
A) artificial pesticides, antibiotics, and hormones
B) fertilizers, compounds, pesticides
C) hormones, fertilizers, antibiotics
D) biological control, pesticides, and animal hormones
38) Minamata disease is caused by:
A) food poisoning
B) mercury poisoning
C) interactions with inorganic compounds
D) protein deficiency
41) The ________ contains plastics of various types weighing over3.5 millions tons
and growing daily.
A) West Atlantic Gyre
B) Northern Pacific Gyre
C) Indian Ocean
D) Southern Artic Gyre

46) The most common goal(s) of channelization projects are:

A) preserving wetlands B) Decreasing overdraft and increasing recharge C) Flood control and drainage improvement D) Increasing streamflow

47) Where in the U.S. did a nuclear power plant experience a cooling failure, which
slowed down the construction of new power plants.
A) Chernobyl
B) St. Louis
C) Three Mile Island
D) Charleston
48) A salmon lays its eggs in                   water, but spends most of its life
in              .
A) fresh, the ocean
B) saline, lakes
C) estuary, rivers
D) salt, the deep ocean
51) Redirecting the Mississippi River is leading to ____________
A) Increased desalinization
B) Loss of groundwater
C) Loss of coastal wetlands
D) Decreased overdraft of groundwater
52) Organic chemicals are _______ based compounds.
A) carbon
B) nitrogen
C) oxygen
D) hydrogen
54) Which of the following is currently processed into biomass energy?
A) coal
B) cotton
C) water
D) organic waste
55) How can volcanic
55) How can volcanic eruptions cool the climate?
A) dust and associated clouds reflect sunlight back into space
B) The heat of a volcano can never be hot enough to heat the air.
C) dust and associated clouds insulate heat in the lower atmosphere
D) Volcanic eruptions will heat the climate instead of cooling the climate.
Nonpoint pollution sources include
A) factory smokestack emissions
B) heavy metal contaminated dust
C) sludge running into the gutter from a meat processing plant
D) loud music from your next door neighbors
60) Fertilization can lead to _________, which increases the growth of aquatic
A) salinization

B) erosion
C) eutrophication
D) sedimentation

61) Which of the following is a greenhouse gas?
A) helium
B) hydrogen
C) methane
D) sulfur dioxide
65) Irrigation can lead to ________ of farmland.
A) eutrophication
B) desertification
C) a decrease in wetlands
D) salinization
66) Which of the following has the highest albedo?
A) snow
B)  wet, dark soil
C) a lavender field
D) a Christmas tree
67) Milankovitch showed that variations in Earth’s orbit around the sun followed a
cycle of approximately 100,000 years, which corresponds with the
A) core cooling density fluctuation responses
B) major extinctions of life on earth
C) major forest fires globally
D) major glacial and interglacial episodes
68) What is one way farmers can avoid degrading the soil?
A) allowing lots of runoff
B) using no-till agriculture
C) using traditional tilling
D) increasing the salts in the soil
69) Farming can cause                .
A) a loss of biodiversity
B) an increase in soil carbon
C) an increase of biodiversity
D) a stabilization in the amount of toxic metals
72) Which type of agriculture is plowed along the slope to reduce erosion?
A) alternative plowing
B) crop rotation
C) multiculture
D) contour plowing
75) What is a result of overgrazing?
A) malnutritioned animals
B) increased windstorms
C) desertification
D) increased species diversity
78) What is thermal pollution?
A) excess sunlight exposure
B) heat released into water or the air producing undesirable effects
C) heat released from homes due to poor insulation
D) overuse of electrical heating during the winter season, and electrical plants
having to produce more electricity.
79) Teratogens
A) increase fertility success
B) decrease the possibility of birth defects
C) have the potential to cause birth defects
D) do not affect the possibility of birth defects
41) Fish are abundant where their food is abundant and, ultimately, where there is high
production of ______ at the base of the food chain.
A) algae
B) predators
C) keystone species
D) omnivores
45) Here in the Pacific Northwest, we can expect a _______ ° C increase in annual
mean temperature due to global warming.
A) 1-2
B) 2-3
C) 4-5
D) 0-1 
46) An example
46) An example of persistent organic pollutant is:
B) methane
C) dioxin
D) hydrocarbons