ESRM Midterm 2

1) Please answer correctly, as it will be graded.

The subject of this course is _______.A) Environmental ScienceB) Horticulture and LandscapingC) Advanced BiometricsD) Chemical Thermodynamics

A
2) Which of the following fuels is considered a “transition fuel”?A) PetroleumB) Natural gasC) CoalD) Solar energy
B
3) How can volcanic eruptions cool the climate?A) Dust and associated clouds reflect sunlight back into space.B) The heat of a volcano can never be hot enough to heat the air.C) Dust and associated clouds absorb the sunlight before it reaches earth.D) Volcanic eruptions will heat the climate instead of cooling the climate.
A
4) Organic chemicals are _________ -based compounds.

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A) carbonB) nitrogenC) oxygenD) hydrogen

A
5) What was the cause of the “dust bowls” in the 1930s?A) high water useB) soil degradationC) meteoritesD) hurricanes
B
6) Biological control is the use of _______ and _______ to control agricultural pests.A) pesticides, fertilizersB) arsenic, organic compoundsC) carbon, other plant compoundsD) predators, parasites
D
7) ______ is a product of uranium decay as well as an indoor air pollutant.A) RadonB) RadiumC) PlutoniumD) Lead
A
8) Water demand during the past half-century has ______ as the human population has more than _______.

A) doubled, tripledB) tripled, doubledC) quadrupled, doubledD) quadrupled, tripled

B
9) Earth’s orbit is__________. A) inverseB) a figure 8C) ellipticalD) circular
C
10) Methane can be produced by certain kinds of _______ that live where there is no ________.A) viruses, carbon dioxideB) viruses, oxygenC) bacteria, oxygenD) bacteria, carbon dioxide
C
11) The United States gets most of its electric power from which source?A) coalB) geothermalC) solarD) wind
A
12) The major human activities causing a decline in fish populations are:A) overfishing, deforestation, and habitat destruction.B) overfishing, pollution, and habitat destruction.

C) pollution and habitat destruction.D) overfishing, pollution, and deforestation.

B
13) Upwellings cause nutrients to be ________.

A) locked in ocean sedimentsB) mixed in ocean sediments with shellfishC) released from ocean sediments into the water columnD) dissolved and disintegrated from ocean plants

C
14) Ice floats because ___________.A) it becomes less dense when it freezesB) it becomes more dense when it freezesC) it has a flat surface that blocks the liquid waterD) it has the same density as air
A
15) A(n) _________ is an underground layer of rocks, sand or gravel that contains usable groundwater and releases it in significant amounts. A) water tableB) effluentC) aquiferD) perennial stream
C
16) Intertidal areas _______.A) flood and drain twice a dayB) flood, but don’t drainC) never flood and drainD) only flood after a rainstorm.
A
17) Milankovitch suggested that climatic cycles of about 40,000 and 20,000 years could result from changes in Earth’s _________.A) density and structureB) tilt and wobbleC) overall climateD) inner core temperature
B
18) What is thermal pollution?A) Excess sunlight exposure.B) Heat released into water or the air, producing undesirable effects.

C) Poor insulation in homes, resulting in heat loss.D) Overuse of electrical heating during the winter season, and electrical plants having to produce more electricity.

B
19) Isotopes are atoms of an element that are chemically the same, but have different atomic weights because they have different numbers of ______.A) protonsB) electronsC) neutronsD) quarks
C
20) A person flying over the Chernobyl site two days after the explosion most probably experienced a(n) ________ to radioactive substances.

A) chronic exposureB) sub-chronic exposureC) acute exposureD) sub-acute exposure

C
21) As a toxic substance moves through the food chain, it becomes _________ in concentration; the __________organism in the food chain will likely receive more harm than a ________ organism.A) biomagnified, top level, bottom levelB) reduced, top level, bottom levelC) biomagnified, bottom level, middle levelD) biomagnified, bottom level, top level
A
22) In most parts of the world, what is the relationship between higher living standards and meat?A) Higher living standards mean a greater demand for meat.B) Higher living standards mean the price of meat will drop.C) Higher living standards mean no change in demand for meat.D) Higher living standards mean less demand for meat.

A
23) Irrigation most commonly leads to ________ of farmland.A) eutrophicationB) desertificationC) volatilizationD) salinization
D
24) Acid runoff is most associated with which of the following mining activities? A) Underground minesB) Strip miningC) Metamorphic soil diggingD) Close pit mining
B
25) The three most toxic metals to humans are:A) mercury, thallium, and leadB) mercury, nickel, and goldC) lead, nickel, and cadmiumD) nickel, platinum, and selenium
A
26) Aquaculture is ____________.A) the profession of collecting clean water B) the study of dominant marine speciesC) the cultivation of things that live in waterD) growing plants in a liquid nutrient solution instead of soil
C
27) A carcinogen is:A) a mutation causing a change in the frequency of a gene in a population.B) a toxin that increases the risk of cancer.C) a gene disorder with the potential to cause birth defects.D) disordering of the genes during crossover in meiosis.
B
28) In the U.

S., the single sector which consumes the greatest portion of the water supply is ________.A) agricultureB) municipal water useC) electric power plants D) waste disposal

A
29) What is the estimated range of Earth’s carrying capacity of human beings?A) 0.5 – 50 billionB) 0.5 – 800 billionC) 7 – 300 billionD) 500 – 900 billion
A
30) Which of the following are all renewable sources of energy?:A) Natural gas, coal, waterB) Geothermal, nuclear, soilC) Solar, wind, woodD) Geothermal, solar, oil
C
31) What is the leading cause of desertification?A) Global warmingB) Poor farming practicesC) GeographyD) Drought
B
32) The U.S.

Water Resources Council estimates that water use in the United States by the year 2020 may exceed surface water resources by ________ percent. A) 2%B) 13%C) 21%D) Over 30%

B
33) Synergism is the interaction of:A) different types of substances, resulting in a combined effect that’s less than the additional effect of each substance individually.B) different types of substances, resulting in a combined effect that’s equal to the effect of each substance individually.

C) different types of substances, resulting in a combined effect that’s greater than the additional effect of each substance individually.D) similar types of substances, resulting in a combined effect that’s less than the additional effect of each substance individually.

C
34) Water has a ________ capacity to absorb and store heat.A) lowB) neutralC) highD) zero
C
35) The effects of flooding are more destructive today than in the past because __________.A) levees are too expensive to build in all of the appropriate locations.B) the use of levees has been determined to be an unsound engineering practice.C) more buildings are constructed on flood plains.D) soil with plant cover is ineffective in absorbing excess water.

C
36) _______ happens when runoff carries fertilizers to water bodies and causes the growth of aquatic algae.A) EutrophicationB) SedimentationC) ToxificationD) Salinization
A
37) Ocean water may be treated to remove salt in the process of:A) decrystallizationB) salinationC) desalinationD) dechlorination
C
38) The Southern Oscillation is known informally as:A) El NinoB) Decadal OscillationC) El ToroD) El Christo
A
40) The majority of the pesticides found in U.S.

waters are_________.A) nitrocidesB) fungicidesC) insecticidesD) herbicides

D
4) What is thermal pollution?A) Excess sunlight exposure.B) Heat released into water or the air producing undesirable effects.C) Poor insulation in homes resulting in heat loss.D) Overuse of electrical heating during the winter season, and electrical plants having to produce more electricity.
B
6) What is a terminator gene?A) A gene with the ability to change an annual to a perennial.B) A gene that is never expressed.C) A gene that prevents plants from flowering.

D) A gene that makes seeds sterile.

D
7) The sea level is now more than 120 meters higher than at the peak of the last ice age, and satellite measurements indicate that it is rising about ________ a year. A) 1/20 inchB) 1/8 inchC) 2 feetD) 10 feet
B
10) Fish are the main source of animal protein for about ______ people worldwide.

A) 10 thousandB) 1 millionC) 250 millionD) 1 billion

D
17) The least environmentally friendly energy is from__________.A) oilB) coalC) natural gasD) geothermal
B
18) Albedo is _________.A) the percentage of light received by a surface that is reflected and scatteredB) he percentage of light that is absorbed by the surfaceC) the percentage of light refracted by the atmosphereD) the percentage of light absorbed into an object
A
19) Mobile sources of pollution originate from _________.A) transportationB) farmingC) forestryD) lakes
A
20) Why does the population generally disapprove of nuclear power sources?A) It takes too much energy and concrete to produce a power plant.B) Geothermal energy is preferred.

C) Nuclear power is renewable.D) Fear of exposure to radioactivity.

D
21) Irrigation can lead to ________ of farmland.

A) eutrophicationB) desertificationC) volatilizationD) salinization

D
24) 97% of all water on earth is in the oceans. Which of the following is the correct order of the Earth’s water storage compartments?:A) Oceans, atmosphere, lakes, groundwater, rivers, ice caps.B) Oceans, groundwater, rivers, ice caps, atmosphere, lakes.C) Oceans, ice caps, groundwater, lakes, atmosphere, rivers.D) Oceans, lakes, ice caps, groundwater, atmosphere, rivers.
C
26) In 1989, an oil tanker spilled 11 million gallons of oil into the Prince William Sound. What was the name of the ship?A) Chevron JourneyB) Exxon ValdezC) Exxon MobileD) Deepwater Horizon
B
29) Overdraft occurs when we take ________. A) take less ground water than can be replaced naturallyB) take an equal amount of ground water as can be replacedC) take more ground water than can be replaced naturallyD) replace the ground water we have taken with polluted water.

C
31) According to the textbook, when are we expected to reach peak oil production?A) 1950-2020 ADB) 2020-2050 ADC) 2050-2080 ADD) 2080-2150 AD
B
33) Geothermal energy is defined as ___________.A) energy originating from wind.B) natural heat from the interior of the Earth.C) energy from the sun.D) energy generated by the splitting or merging of the nuclei of atoms.
B
35) The big three plants that most people in the world eat are: A) potatoes, rice, and wheat.

B) rice, wheat, and corn.C) cassava, corn, and wheat.D) potatoes, corn, and rice.

B
36) What is the main alcohol found in biofuel?A) methaneB) propaneC) ethanolD) butanol
C
37) Which of the following includes the other three?:A) Risk assessmentB) Risk managementC) Risk analysisD) Risk communication
C
39) The oceans are warmed by the sun in the tropics. These warmed waters expand and flow north (in the Northern Hemisphere) along the surface, bringing their heat to northern latitudes. As they reach the North, these warm waters give up their heat and, as they cool, condense, become heavier, and sink, returning in the depths to the tropics. This global circulation is called the __________.A) ocean graveyardB) ocean highwayC) ocean stairwellD) ocean conveyor
D
40) The United States, with 5% of the world’s population, uses about _____ of the total energy? A) 2%B) 5%C) 20%D) 50%
C
2) From GoPost.

Since implementation of the “one child policy” in 1979, China has achieved the slowest birth rate of any country in the world. A) TRUEB) FALSE

B
3) From GoPost. According to a New York Times article, the US produces ____ tons of food waste per year. A) 5 millionB) 10 millionC) 30 millionD) 1.

2 billion

C
4) Which of the following is not a predicted outcome of global climate change?A) More extreme weather patternsB) Ocean water becomes alkalineC) Extinction of some organismsD) Rising sea levels
B
5) Methane is produced by certain kinds of___________that cannot live where there is ________.A) Viruses; carbon dioxideB) Viruses; oxygenC) Bacteria; oxygenD) Bacteria; carbon dioxide
C
6) A curious and historicallly important climate change linked to variations in ocean currents is the Southern Oscillation, known informally as _______.A) La NinaB) El NinoC) Milankovitch cyclesD) Gulf Stream
B
7) During the last two million years or so, the climate of the Earth has:A) Slowly increased in temperatureB) Slowly decreased in humidityC) Been very constantD) Swung sharply both up and down in temperature
D
8) The 19__s were the warmest decade in the 142 years that temperatures have been recorded, and in the last 1,000 years, according to geologic data.A) 90B) 80C) 70D) 60
A
9) Greenhouse warming is expected to cause which of the following climate changes?A) Increased possibility of droughts in the northern temperate latitudeB) Hotter drier summersC) Wetter wintersD) All of the above
D
10) The oceans cover_______of the Earth’s surface.A) 20%B) 50%C) 70%D) 90%
C
11) The goal of the Marine Mammal Protection Act is:A) Optimum sustainable populationB) Maximum sustainable yieldC) Establishing carrying capacityD) maintaining aquaculture production
A
12) Shrimp farms threaten the existence of:A) Oldgrowth forestsB) Mangrove forestsC) Sand barsD) Coral Reefs
B
13) Currently aquaculture provides more than ____ of all fish harvest annuallyA) 20%B) 10%C) 30%D) 50%
A
14) The main reason/s fish populations are shrinking are ______.

A) overharvestingB) habitat destruction C) pollutionD) All of the above

D
16) Fish are abundant where their food is abundant and, ultimately, where there is high production of ______ at the base of the food chain. A) algaeB) predatorsC) keystone speciesD) omnivores
A
18) What does B.O.D. stand for?A) Barometer of DecompositionB) Bacterial Oxygen DependencyC) Biological Oxygen DepletionD) Biochemical Oxygen Demand
D
20) Which of the following is NOT usually associated with eutrophication?A) Increased heavy metal concentrationsB) Algal bloomsC) Increased nutrient concentrationsD) Reduced photosynthesis in the water column
A
21) The largest groundwater deposit in the world is the:A) Ogallala AquiferB) Great Basin AquiferC) Rocky Mountain AquiferD) Great Lakes Aquifer
A
22) In deciding whether a water supply is polluted, we generally consider several things: A) what we intend to use the water forB) its ecological effectsC) Both A and BD) None of the above
C
24) Forecasts put the peak in world crude oil production (about 90 million barrels per day) between the years? A) 2020 and 2050B) 2010 and 2090C) 2010 and 2020D) 2000 and 2010
A
25) Which of these fossil fuels is the worldOs most abundant and most polluting? A) OilB) Natural gasC) CoalD) Petroleum
C
26) This is the fastest worldOs growing energy source, doubling every two years. A) Motion energyB) GeothermalC) Sound wavesD) Photovoltaic
D
27) Which of the following radiations, does not belong to the three major kind of nuclear radiation? A) X RaysB) Gamma raysC) Alpha particlesD) Beta particles
A
29) Today, in developing countries, biomass (mainly wood) provides about ______ of the total energy supply A) 5%B) 20%C) 35%D) 80%
C
31) Which is the layer of accumulation in the soil? A) O horizonB) A horizonC) B horizonD) C horizon
B
32) America is a leader in the percent of no-till acreage in the world A) TB) F
B
33) What is not involved in biological control of agricultural pests? A) FertilizationB) ParasitesC) Bacillus thuringiensisD) Predators
A
34) Superhybrids can require too much water and nutrients from marginal sites.A) TB) F
A
35) What caused the Dust Bowl?A) PlowingB) Wind stormsC) DroughtD) Tornadoes
A, B, C
36) Evaluating the potential harm to humans of a particular chemical requires determiningA) the sources and amounts of exposure.

B) the amounts absorbed, distributed throughout the body & excreted.C) whether a child or an adult is exposed.D) all of these answers

D
37) Risk is expressed as a probability of suffering fromA) disease.B) economic loss.C) environmental damage.D) all of these answers
D
38) Dose and response may be affected by the chemical’sA) solubility characteristics.

B) Biomagnifications & persistence.C) antagonistic and synergistic interactions with other chemicals.D) all of these answers

D
39) A threshold dose-response modelA) implies there is a dose below which no detectable harmful effects occur.B) errs on the side of safety.

C) implies that each dose of ionizing radiation or toxic chemical carries a risk of causing harm.D) is useful for assessing chronic toxicity.

A
40) Risk assessment and risk-benefit analyses are useful for all of the following except theyA) focus on areas that need more research.B) help regulators decide how money for reducing risks should be allocated.C) identify significant hazards & organize available information.D) eliminate uncertainties about planning the future.

D
2) From GoPost. In China, the ratio of males to females under age 15 is ___, and in the USA, it is _____. A) 1.04 to 1; 1.13 to 1B) 1.13 to 1; 1.

04 to 1

B
3) From GoPost. What is the most efficient way to approach energy supply problemsA) build more renewable energy systemsB) tax people on their energy useC) reduce energy useD) give government subsidies to increase use of photovoltaics
C
4) Which of the following is NOT a greenhouse gas?A) MethaneB) Water vaporC) Carbon dioxideD) Sulfur dioxide
D
5) How much of an increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide has occurred since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution?A) 12%B) 32%C) 52%D) 70%
B
6) The thinning of sea ice is having a large impact on the ____ population. A) WhaleB) Sea lionC) Polar BearD) Dolphin
C
7) Some scientist have suggested that we could cool the climate by injecting ______ into the upper atmosphere, just as volcanic eruptions doA) ashB) sulfur oxidesC) nitrogen oxidesD) hot lava
B
8) Use of CFCs as propellants was banned in the United States in ________.A) 2000B) 1995C) 1978D) 1966
C
10) Soon after the Kyoto Conference the United States fianally agreed to lower emissions about 7% below 1990 levels by 2010. However, it was realized that emissions of CO2 in 2010 would be _____ higher than the 1990 emissions.A) 10%B) 20%C) 30%D) 40%
C
11) Continental shelves provide _________ of the fishery harvest.

A) 25%B) 32%C) 50%D) 90%

D
12) Upwellings provide fish with:A) TurbidityB) Fresh warm waterC) Nutrient rich waterD) Predators
C
13) More people die from ________ than shark deaths on an annual average.A) Lightning B) ElephantsC) Snake biteD) All of the above
D
14) Marine fish are an important food, and world harvests of fish are large, but fish populations on which these harvest depend are __________.A) easily exploitedB) generally decliningC) difficult to restoreD) All of the above
D
15) We desperately need new approaches to forecasting acceptable harvests and workable international agreements to ______. A) maintain current populationsB) increase catchC) limit catchD) decrease pollution
C
16) The ________ Bay, AmericaOs largest estuary, was one of the worldOs great fisheries, famous for oysters and crabs and as the breeding and spawning ground for bluefish, sea bass, and many other commercially valuable species. A) ChesapeakeB) San FranciscoC) TampaD) Hudson
A
18) Massive and rapid algae growth is stimulated by the addition of _______ to surface water bodies.A) Carbon dioxideB) OxygenC) Nitrogen and phosphorusD) Aerobic bacteria
C
19) Approximately ______ of the water vapor passing over the United States every day falls as precipitation (as rain, snow, hail, or sleet).

A) 1%B) 5%C) 10%D) 20%

C
20) The average person in the United States uses ______ gallons of water per day.A) 100B) 700C) 1000D) 1500
A
21) The greatest use of fresh water is for:A) IndustryB) HomesC) Small businessesD) Irrigation
D
24) Water and oil are the most abundant fluids in EarthOs upper crust? A) TrueB) False
A
27) Which of the following methods is not a current ways to store energy?A) Mechanically by moving matterB) ChemicallyC) ElectricallyD) All of the above methods are currently used to store energy
D
28) _______ is the only naturally occurring fissionable form, and therefore it is essential to the production of nuclear energy. A) Uranium 238B) Uranium 235C) Uranium 234D) Uranium 233
B
30) What is the most consumed food type in America? A) GrainB) FruitC) MeatD) Vegetables
D
31) What is not always a negative aspect of farming?A) DesertificationB) SalinizationC) FertilizationD) Loss of biodiversity
C
32) ____________ happens when sediments carry fertilizers which causes growth of aquatic algaeA) EutrophicationB) SedimentationC) ToxicificationD) Salinization
A
33) The majority of pesticides found in U.S. waters are: A) ArsenicB) FungicidesC) HerbicidesD) Ferticides
C
34) The greatest increase in acreage of genetically modified crops has been seen in which species? A) CornB) SoybeanC) WheatD) Cotton
B
35) What percent of the daily calories consumed by humans is provided by the six most consumed plant speciesA) 40%B) 60%C) 80%D) 25%
C
37) TeratogensA) are fatal to humans in low doses.B) cause birth defects.

C) are harmful because they are irritating to skin or lungs.D) cause mutations.

B
40) Dose-response curvesA) show the effects of various doses of toxic agents on a group of test organisms.B) are extrapolated using mathematical models to project possible effects of high doses.C) are extrapolated from humans to other primates.D) all of these answers
A
2) According to a post on the discussion list quoting John Tierney, the primary beneficiary of some recycling programs are _____. A) people involved in waste handling politicsB) producers of non-recycled materialsC) the publicD) the environment
A
3) According to a post on the discussion last, bottled water contains more potentially harmful ____ than tap water.

A) microorganismsB) phthalatesC) leadD) dilithium

B
4) Carcinogen exposure increases the risk of developing:A) Cardiovascular diseaseB) CancerC) AsbestosisD) Mercury Poisoning
B
5) The interaction of different substances where the combined effect is greater than the sum of the effect of the separate substances:A) dose responseB) synergismC) particulatesD) biomagnification
B
6) Biomagnification is associated with all of the following except:A) the accumulation of chemicals in organismsB) higher toxin concentrations at successive trophic levelsC) the development of tolerance to a pesticide or toxinD) biomagnification can occur in both aquatic and terrestrial habitats
C
7) All of the following are infectious agents except:A) giardiasisB) salmonellaC) dioxinD) malaria
C
8) All of the following were once primary sources of lead except:A) paintB) plumbing pipesC) gasolineD) air ventilation ducts
D
9) How a chemical affects an individual depends on:A) exposure time seriesB) the dose of the exposureC) form of the chemicalD) absorption sequence
B
10) Salinization is:A) buildup of salt in waterB) buildup of salt in soilC) buildup of salt in airD) none of the above
B
11) The single most effective way to reduce soil erosion is to use:A) advanced plant regenerationB) contour plowingC) strip croppingD) crop rotation
B
12) In order to prevent over-grazing in a farmland situation it is important to:A) allow cattle to eat in one areaB) rotate cattle around the farmC) rotate cattle within the same areaD) allow cattle to graze wherever they want
B
13) Soil erosion became a concern in the U.S. following:A) World War IB) World War IIC) The Dust BowlD) The Industrial Revolution
C
14) IPM is a(n) ___________ approach to pest managementA) unsuccessfulB) ecosystemC) chemicalD) eradication
B
15) Use of the pesticide DDT is now banned:A) throughout the worldB) in AfricaC) from agricultural landsD) in the US
D
16) Which of the following is not a fossil fuel?A) coalB) oilC) natural gasD) geothermal energy
D
17) What was the main source of heat in the US until the end of the 20th Century?A) oilB) gasC) woodD) coal
C
18) Which is considered the most polluting of the fossil fuels?A) coalB) oilC) natural gasD) wood
A
19) The primary energy source that is most used in the US for producing electricity isA) water powerB) nuclear powerC) coalD) crude oil
C
20) Which of the following offers the most potential in terms of reducing the energy problem in the US?A) geothermal powerB) wave powerC) nuclear powerD) conservation
D
21) All of the following are features of passive solar design exceptA) adobe walls and flagstone floor used for heat storageB) evergreen (coniferous) trees blocking sun all yearC) photovoltaic cells on the roof of a houseD) summer cooling vents in the roof
C
22) A type of biomass energy is:A) tar sandsB) crude oilC) woodD) fuel cell
C
23) Fuel cells use (i)_______________ for energy and release (ii)_______________ as waste.A) i. hydrogen ii.

waterB) i. oxygen ii. carbon dioxideC) i. hydrogen ii. hydrocarbonsD) i.

hydrogencarbons ii. carbon monoxide and water

A
24) Use of groundwater at a rate faster that it is naturally re-supplied is called:A) an overdraftB) a water budgetC) an influent streamD) an underdraft
A
30) What is an aquifer?A) a canal or system to transport water over long distancesB) zone of hot, pressurized groundwaterC) permeable rock that holds and transmits waterD) nonporous rock
C
2) According to a GoPost on the discussion list what is necessary for demographic transition from stage 2 to 3 _____. A) The industrialization rate must increase past the replacement maximumB) parents must be required to have only one childC) parents must believe that fewer children will lead to greater benefits for them and their childrenD) death rates must increase to match birth rates
C
3) According to a GoPost about an article by Mireya Navaro in the New York Times, what percent of total waste is food waste?A) 13 percentB) 26%C) 47%D) 65.2%
A
4) Which of the following terms refers to the accumulation of a substance in living tissue as it moves through the food web:A) dose responseB) synergismC) particulatesD) biomagnification
D
5) What is synergism?A) the association of two dissimilar species, to the benefit of bothB) the transmission of heat energy in greenhousesC) the addition of herbicides to fertilizers in order to make crops pest-resistantD) the interaction of different substances such that the effect combined is greater than the sum of the separate effects
D
6) Once methyl mercury is biomagnified within a food chain, which contains higher amounts of mercury?A) big fish that eat little fishB) smaller fish that eat algaeC) big fish that eat algaeD) smaller fish that eat other small fish
A
7) Which of the following is the most toxic of the human-made chemicals in the environment?A) DDTB) AldrinC) PCBD) Dioxin
D
8) Lead and mercury affect the:A) eyesB) earsC) brainD) spine
C
9) No-till agriculture has___________soil loss in the United States.A) increasedB) decreasedC) caused no change inD) None of the above
B
10) Farming uses up the____________ in soil.A) nutrientsB) loamC) acidD) humus
A
11) IPM stands for:A) Integrated Pollution ManagementB) Integrated Pest ManagementC) International Pest ManualD) International Pollution Management
B
12) Most of the world’s food is provided by only______plant species.A) 3B) 14C) 42D) 420
B
13) BT :A) attacks many pests and is not safe for humansB) attacks only specific pests and is safe for humansC) attacks all pests and harms soil fertilityD) causes harm to humans and animals
B
14) Which of the following is NOT a major genetically modified crop?A) cornB) soybeansC) wheatD) cotton
C
15) How much of the total world energy does the US consume?A) 5%B) 10%C) 15%D) 20%
D
16) Which of the following types of energy is not renewable?A) sunB) waterC) windD) oil
D
17) Where does most of the coal in the US come from?A) strip miningB) underground miningC) refineriesD) shelter beds
A
18) Fuel-cell-powered cars use ___________ as a fuel.A) oxygenB) hydrogenC) carbon dioxideD) sulfur dioxide
B
19) When discussing sources of fossil fuels, a reserve can be defined as:A) a source we can access now for a profitB) the entire amount of a source available for useC) the oil from shale that is accessed for saleD) a useful mineral source
A
20) ___________ is the ability to move matter.

A) forceB) energyC) powerD) distance

B
21) Half-life is:A) half the expected age of a speciesB) half of the time it takes to double the radiation released by an isotopeC) half of the time it takes to decompose a gram of biomassD) the length of time for one-half of a isotope to decay to another form
D
26) Seawater is about _______salt.A) 1%B) 3.5%C) 10%D) 22%
B
27) Groundwater accounts for _____of all water used in the United States.

A) 1%B) 20%C) 40%D) 60%

B
28) A high B.O.D. in a river indicatesA) that the water is very cleanB) that nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations are lowC) that carbon content is lowD) that the water quality of the river is poor
D
29) Open oceans are called:A) BenthosB) Pelagic ZonesC) Continental shelvesD) Coral reefs
B
30) Where do most fish we eat come from?A) Continental shelvesB) Sand barsC) Coral reefsD) Upwellings
A
31) Algae does not grow in the ___________.

A) BenthosB) Pelagic ZonesC) Continental shelvesD) Coral reefs

A
32) The Gulf Steam provides warmth to:A) Northern EuropeB) ChinaC) Eastern EuropeD) United States
A
33) 20% of the nation’s commercial shellfish beds have been closed because of:A) Low tidesB) Low water levelsC) PollutionD) Sharks
C
35) The warmest year on record was:A) 1995B) 1998C) 2002D) 2005
D
36) The atmosphere of Venus and Mars is made up of mostly:A) Carbon dioxideB) Nitrogen C) OzoneD) Water Vapor
A
38) Which of the following activities reduces the emissions of nitrous oxide into the atmosphere?A) Burning natural gasB) Using less fertilizerC) Using more fertilizerD) Burning leaves
B
40) How much atmospheric carbon is emitted in the United States?A) 10%B) 20%C) 30%D) 35%
B
3) Fish are the main source of protein for ~ _______ of the population.A) 0.75B) 0.50C) 0.

33D) 0.17

D
4) Name the three major nuclear radiation particlesA) gamma, alpha, betaB) microwave, gamma, radiateC) sonic, theta, alphaD) radio wave, microwave, infrared
A
7) In the United States, at least ______% of the nationOs commercial shellfish beds have at times been closed (mostly temporarily) because of pollution. A) 20B) 5C) 1D) 80
A
11) _________ is found in trace amounts in the atmosphere.A) carbonB) nitrogenC) oxygenD) methane
D
12) Which species has caused the most controversy and greatest regulation of logging practices in the Pacific Northwest.A) Grizzly BearB) Atlantic SalmonC) Grey WolfD) Spotted Owl
D
13) A stream that only flows during or shortly after rainfall or during snowmelt may be called _____________. A) annualB) ephemeralC) yearlyD) perennial
B
14) Fertilization can lead to _________, which increases the growth of aquatic algae.A) salinizationB) erosionC) eutrophicationD) sedimentation
C
15) Aerosols reduce the amount of sun that hits the earth by 10% leading to a 50% reduction in associated global warming.

This is known as:A) aerosol reductionB) greenhouse reductionC) global dimmingD) global warming

C
16) The upper surface of groundwater is called the:A) top waterB) water tableC) surface layerD) upper liquid
B
17) Irrigation commonly leads to ________ of farmland.A) eutrophicationB) desertificationC) erosionD) salinization
D
18) Contamination: A) implies something unfit for a particular use through the introduction of undesirable materials. B) is a substance that is poisonous (toxic) to people and other living things.C) often leads to healthier ecosystemsD) is the interaction of different types of substances, resulting in a combined effect that’s greater than the additional effect of each substance individually
A
19) Farming can cause: .A) a loss of biodiversityB) an increase in soil carbonC) an increase of biodiversityD) a stabilization in the amount of toxic metals
A
20) Which soil layer contains organic and mineral materials?A) A horizonB) O horizonC) C horizonD) L horizon
A
22) A smoke stack releasing toxic metals is an example of a __________ source pollution.A) mobileB) releasedC) pointD) continuous
C
23) Define synfuels.A) liquid or gaseous fuel from solid fossil fuelsB) synthetically processed petroleumC) liquid or gaseous fuels derived from decomposed organic matterD) Steam energy combined with a synthetic fuel
A
24) About ________ percent of earthOs water is generally suitable for human use:A) 50.

00%B) 30.00%C) 1.00%D) 0.00%

C
25) What are the 3 major forms of fossil fuels?A) nuclear, oil, petroleumB) diesel, oil, nuclearC) oil, natural gas, coalD) oil, diesel, biodiesel
C
26) Continental shelves are:A) areas of seafloor spreadingB) the underwater edges of the continentsC) coral reef species architectural designD) underwater caves
B
27) Aerosols are less than ____________ and because they are so small, they can remain in the atmosphere a very long time.A) 10 micronsB) 10 centimetersC) 10 metersD) 10 micrometers
A
28) Due to bioaccumulation, mercury is consumed but not eliminated, so the final predator (such as bass) has a(n) ________________concentration of mercury.A) highB) lowC) unchangedD) not enough information
A
29) A stream that flows all year is called a ___________ stream.A) annualB) ephemeralC) yearlyD) perennial
D
30) ______ is used as the primary source of drinking water for nearly half the people in the United States.

A) Surface waterB) GroundwaterC) Desalinized waterD) Reclaimed water

B
31) A volcano erupts with a large amount of ash expelled. The temperature can be expected to:A) decreaseB) increaseC) remain the sameD) not enough information
A
33) A “commons” is:A) domestic territory, used by many nationsB) domestic territory, used by nationals onlyC) international territory, used by many nationsD) international territory, used by domestics only
C
34) Earth’s energy balance is the balance between the amount of energy coming:A) in from the sun and the amount of energy radiated out by the Earth. B) in from the earth and the amount of energy radiated out by the sun. C) in from the sun and the amount coming from the core.D) from the core and the amount from the sun.
A
35) How much food does one person consume in America per year?A) quarter tonB) one tonC) two tonsD) half ton
B or D
36) In ideal farming, the amount of soil lost would never be than the amount of new soil.A) less, erodedB) greater, producedC) greater, lostD) less, produced
B
38) A toxin is a:A) an organism with the potential to cause birth defectsB) an organism that removes lead from the soilC) substance that increases the risk of cancerD) substance that is poisonous (toxic) to people and other living things.
D
40) Continental shelves make up only ________% of the oceans, yet provide more than ______ of the fishery harvest, and ______ of the worldOs fish catch are made in upwellings.

A) 10, 90, 1/2B) 90, 10, 1/2C) 90, 10, 1/10D) 10, 90, 9/10

A
6) The open ocean is also known as:A) pelagic zoneB) zone of accumulationC) benthic zoneD) continental shelves
A
13) The human population is expected to _____ ; therefore agricultural production will need to _______. A) decrease, slow downB) triple, doubleC) double, doubleD) triple, triple
C
14) If you lived in the desert, you would wear ______ because it has a high albedo and would keep you cooler.A) redB) purpleC) blackD) white
D
17) Approximately what % of water on earth is fresh water?A) 20B) 45C) 71D) 3
D
20) What organic matter found in abundance in the seafloor could be a new source of natural gas?A) methane hydratesB) ethaneC) hydrogen sulfideD) hydrocarbons
A
22) The Great Pacific Ocean Garbage Patch is about twice the size of ?A) AlaskaB) TexasC) Washington StateD) Florida
B
23) Which of the following is an example of passive solar energy use?A) planting a deciduous tree in front of one’s home for more sunlight exposure in the winter and less sunlight exposure in the summerB) collecting solar energy in solar panels for use in the home year roundC) putting photovoltaics on one’s rooftop to collect the sun’s energyD) passing cold water through a solar collector to use as hot water
A
25) Wetlands are natural _____ that help ______ water; plants in wetlands trap ______ and _______. A) filters, purify, sediments, toxinsB) filters, purify, concretions, toxinsC) filters, purify, sediments, vitaminsD) filters, destroy, sediments, toxins
A
27) DDT is stored in allowing the chemical to be transferred up the food chain.A) livers and hearts of animalsB) soilC) the mantleD) fats and oils of animals
D
29) What are the three major crops produced in the world?A) sugarcane, potatoes, wheatB) soybean, corn, potatoesC) corn, rice, potatoesD) rice, corn, wheat
D
33) To be considered freshwater, seawater of 3.

5% salt content must be desalinated to ______ % salt content.A) 0.50B) 0.05C) 5.00D) 50.00

B
36) Organic farming is to produce food without A) artificial pesticides, antibiotics, and hormonesB) fertilizers, compounds, pesticidesC) hormones, fertilizers, antibioticsD) biological control, pesticides, and animal hormones
A
38) Minamata disease is caused by: A) food poisoningB) mercury poisoningC) interactions with inorganic compoundsD) protein deficiency
B
41) The ________ contains plastics of various types weighing over3.5 millions tonsand growing daily.

A) West Atlantic GyreB) Northern Pacific GyreC) Indian OceanD) Southern Artic Gyre

B
46) The most common goal(s) of channelization projects are:A) preserving wetlands B) Decreasing overdraft and increasing recharge C) Flood control and drainage improvement D) Increasing streamflow
C
47) Where in the U.S. did a nuclear power plant experience a cooling failure, whichslowed down the construction of new power plants.A) ChernobylB) St. LouisC) Three Mile IslandD) Charleston
C
48) A salmon lays its eggs in                   water, but spends most of its lifein              .A) fresh, the oceanB) saline, lakesC) estuary, riversD) salt, the deep ocean
A
51) Redirecting the Mississippi River is leading to ____________A) Increased desalinizationB) Loss of groundwaterC) Loss of coastal wetlandsD) Decreased overdraft of groundwater
C
52) Organic chemicals are _______ based compounds.A) carbonB) nitrogenC) oxygenD) hydrogen
A
54) Which of the following is currently processed into biomass energy?A) coalB) cottonC) waterD) organic waste55) How can volcanic
D
55) How can volcanic eruptions cool the climate?A) dust and associated clouds reflect sunlight back into spaceB) The heat of a volcano can never be hot enough to heat the air.C) dust and associated clouds insulate heat in the lower atmosphereD) Volcanic eruptions will heat the climate instead of cooling the climate.
A
Nonpoint pollution sources includeA) factory smokestack emissionsB) heavy metal contaminated dustC) sludge running into the gutter from a meat processing plantD) loud music from your next door neighbors
B
60) Fertilization can lead to _________, which increases the growth of aquaticalgae.A) salinizationB) erosionC) eutrophicationD) sedimentation
c
61) Which of the following is a greenhouse gas?A) heliumB) hydrogenC) methaneD) sulfur dioxide
C
65) Irrigation can lead to ________ of farmland.A) eutrophicationB) desertificationC) a decrease in wetlandsD) salinization
D
66) Which of the following has the highest albedo?A) snowB)  wet, dark soilC) a lavender fieldD) a Christmas tree
A
67) Milankovitch showed that variations in Earth’s orbit around the sun followed acycle of approximately 100,000 years, which corresponds with theA) core cooling density fluctuation responsesB) major extinctions of life on earthC) major forest fires globallyD) major glacial and interglacial episodes
D
68) What is one way farmers can avoid degrading the soil?A) allowing lots of runoffB) using no-till agricultureC) using traditional tillingD) increasing the salts in the soil
B
69) Farming can cause                .A) a loss of biodiversityB) an increase in soil carbonC) an increase of biodiversityD) a stabilization in the amount of toxic metals
A
72) Which type of agriculture is plowed along the slope to reduce erosion?A) alternative plowingB) crop rotationC) multicultureD) contour plowing
D
75) What is a result of overgrazing?A) malnutritioned animalsB) increased windstormsC) desertificationD) increased species diversity
C
78) What is thermal pollution?A) excess sunlight exposureB) heat released into water or the air producing undesirable effectsC) heat released from homes due to poor insulationD) overuse of electrical heating during the winter season, and electrical plantshaving to produce more electricity.
B
79) TeratogensA) increase fertility successB) decrease the possibility of birth defectsC) have the potential to cause birth defectsD) do not affect the possibility of birth defects
C
41) Fish are abundant where their food is abundant and, ultimately, where there is highproduction of ______ at the base of the food chain.A) algaeB) predatorsC) keystone speciesD) omnivores
A
45) Here in the Pacific Northwest, we can expect a _______ ° C increase in annualmean temperature due to global warming.A) 1-2B) 2-3C) 4-5D) 0-1 46) An example
C
46) An example of persistent organic pollutant is:A) CFCsB) methaneC) dioxinD) hydrocarbons
C