In this essay I will evaluate the usefulness of psychological approaches to health and social care. For the Humanistic approach will assess the usefulness of a care assistant in a care home treating the whole person and in a hospital a nurse’s ability to ensure a patient’s physical, intellectual, emotional and social needs have been met (P . 1 . E. S). For Social Learning theory will evaluate a nursery assistant in a nursery capability of being a positive role model and in a hospital a nurse’s role of carrying out anti- discriminatory practice.
For the Behaviorism approach I will judge the usefulness of a key worker challenging student’s behavior in a school and a school nurse’s capability Of shaping behavior. The positives Of the Humanistic approach is that it is easy to learn and apply for care assistants In a care home (Webby. Com, 2012). This may be due to residents being at the care home for longer periods, providing time for the care assistant to build a positive relationship with the residents.
The care worker provides a positive environment for the resident to live in, by treating residents as individuals, paving freedom to residents to make their own decisions about their wellbeing and lifestyle; while also being able to provide support as required. If the care assistant applies the humanistic approach in practice, the care worker satisfies Mascots hierarchy of needs; therefore providing a perfect environment for an individual to self-actualities.
A negative is that the care assistant would need to adopt the principles of the humanistic approach at all times, preventing mixed messages being sent to residents and the care worker would need to invest a lot of time to carry out the approach. In both settings I assume that the Humanistic approach is easy to apply as the role of a care assistant and a nurse is to care for others, by getting into the profession the individual will build on their good qualities such as learning to be compassionate and empathetic towards others.
However the Humanistic approach could also be difficult to apply in both settings, as at point of employment to be able to judge that the future employee has humanistic qualities. To combine a professional approach whilst being compassionate to individual receiving the care, can be very draining on the caregiver. It is important for the care giver to get the right balance. To apply the Humanistic approach in each settings, is dependent on good staffing levels as the approach is time consuming.
In the care home the assistants have tasks that they need to complete and it is time orientated, so the career might not have time to carry out the approach properly. The positives of nurses using the Humanistic approach in hospitals is throughout the day nurses carry out regular checks which are easy to follow. The nurses see each patient typically hourly, to check the patients are eating, personal hygiene and skin integrity (B. Vitiations, 201 1).
Nurses also monitor vital signs for example blood pressure, to ensure the patient’s physical wellbeing is observed and action is taken if the patient deteriorates. Therefore the patient’s essential needs are met. The negatives to this approach is that the staff need to be educated in this approach, as it is not something they would necessarily do. In addition the nurse’s job is task orientated, moving away from treating patients as individuals. Even though that patients are seen frequently, the time spent with each individual patient IS limited.
Therefore emotional and social needs may not be met due to a time limit, reducing the opportunity for the nurse to sit down and help resolve a patient’s problem. Nurses often refer jobs to others as they are busy (Brown. L, 2013). The positives of using the Social Learning Theory is that there are many opportunities to learn the right behavior required through staff meetings, posters and observing others. In both settings the workers are also motivated to abide the rules as if they don’t how the right behavior they may get a disciplinary or dismissed.
If they do show the right behavior the workers get to stay on at their job and may potentially reach a higher status. Dismissing workers for not showing the right behavior means that the number of workers that show bad behavior decreases, so the likely hood of good behavior in the workplace increases, as there is no one to copy the bad behavior displayed. The only negative is that this model relies heavily on attention and memory so the workers must remind themselves daily of what good behavior is.
A way to overcome this is by the workers writing the rules of good behavior down and rereading it or if it is modeled in a video tape used in a staff meeting, to re-watch it. This approach is easy to follow it shows that one person behavior has a strong influence on other workers, patients or children. The nurse just needs to remember what anti- discriminatory practice is and apply it to her job when working with different people. The care assistant just need to remember what the expected positive behavior is and apply it when working with children. El that in a Hospital it would be harder to witness anti-discriminatory behavior modeled by another nurse as it is usually busy on the wards, however in a nursery I think it would be easier to observe positive role modeling from another member of staff as the job is not as fast paced and many members of staff are in a room at once in a nursery. The Social Learning Theory may be difficult to follow in a nursery as the assistants need to have the ability to learn what bad behavior is and self-reflect on their own behavior.
Some nursery assistants may view aspects of their behavior as DOD, where as to others the care assistant displays bad behavior. In addition the care assistant needs to learn to use positive role modeling constantly throughout the day, despite feeling angry or sad inside. Anti- discriminatory practice may also be difficult to apply to some nurses in a hospital that have strong view/assumptions about a certain group of people such as gays.
As the individual has such a strong belief it would be hard to change their view and could potentially cause arguments. The positive of having a key worker in a special school applying the Behaviorism approach is hat the worker is in most of the children’s classes, observing their behavior. If a child behaves well the positive behavior is rewarded and negative behavior leads to punishment. Reinforcing rewards and punishment on the students, leads to the child learning by classical and operant conditioning what is right and wrong behavior.
The child will then hopefully adopt behavior and stay out of trouble later on in life. A negative of using the Behaviorism approach in some specials schools is that sometimes the child sees attention in response to being naughty as a reward, so the key worker deeds to find way to deal with this. It is quite easy to follow, at staff training the key worker will be taught what’s right and wrong behavior. The rule is quite simple to remember, the worker can give rewards for good behavior and punish bad behavior.
If the key worker does not know how to deal with a certain child’s behavior they could always ask the teacher for help. The positives of a school nurse using the Behaviorism approach is that by the nurse directing the good and bad consequences at each individual it makes the message personal and memorable. The nurse does this by making the student aware that if they do not look after themselves the bad consequence can happen to them.
A negative to the Behaviorism approach is that both classical and operant conditioning require reinforcement for the individual to learn. This means to effectively put the message across the nurse needs to do many assemblies on a certain subject, hold various class talks and display posters round the school. This will lead to the message being reinforced into the student, however the school nurse usually only holds one assembly or en class talk due to time constraints.
The behaviorism approach is quite easy to follow the nurse just needs to get all the students attention and clearly state the good and bad consequences of a health issue. However this approach can be difficult to follow as in large assembly halls it could be difficult for the nurse to get everyone’s attention especially if the subject they are talking about is boring. Therefore if the child is not engaged, they will not learn. To overcome this the nurse must find a way of making the subject interesting for the students.
To conclude the Humanistic approach is easy to follow for nurses and care assistants, by building on their caring qualities, compassion and empathy towards others. In both settings the effectiveness of the approach depends on the staffing levels as parts of the approach can be time consuming. For example whilst a care assistant sits down with a resident to talk about the residents’ concerns, there needs to be another member of staff looking after the other residents.