evioremental bio

Biological evolution vs. fitness
change in genetic make up of a species
most dominant survive
natural vs artificial selection
the process in nature by which only the organisms that are best adapted to their environment tend to survive.

intentional breeding for certain traits

precautionary principles
The precautionary principle states that if an action or policy has a suspected risk of causing harm to the public or to the environment, in the absence of scientific consensus that the action or policy is harmful, the burden of proof that it is not harmful falls on those taking the action.
tragedy of commons
The tragedy of the commons is a dilemma arising from the situation in which multiple individuals, acting independently, and solely and rationally consulting their own self-interest, will ultimately deplete a shared limited resource even when it is clear that it is not in anyone’s long-term interest for this to happen.
probabilty vs possibility
probal: is most likely to happen
possible: it can happen but not likely
biological species vs. population
A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring.

group of organisms of one species that interbreed and live in the same place at the same time (e.g. deer population).

public trust doctrine
The public trust doctrine is the principle that certain resources are preserved for public use, and that the government is required to maintain it for the public’s reasonable use
consumptive vs non consumptive
Consumptive use: The use of a resource that reduces the supply (removing water from a source like a river, lake or aquifer without returning an equal amount)
Water drawn for use that is not consumed. For example, water withdrawn for purposes such as hydropower generation. It also includes uses such as boating or fishing where the water is still available for other uses at the same site
malthusian vs neo mathusian
: of or relating to Malthus or to his theory that population tends to increase at a faster rate than its means of subsistence and that unless it is checked by moral restraint or disaster (as disease, famine, or war) widespread poverty and degradation inevitably result
Currently it may be used as a label for those who are concerned that overpopulation may increase resource depletion or environmental degradation to a degree that is not sustainable with the potential of ecological collapse or other hazards.
the spontaneous emission of a stream of particles or electromagnetic rays in nuclear decay
Uranium 235
is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium. Unlike the predominant isotope uranium-238 it is fissile, i.e. it can sustain fission chain reaction.
uranium 238
is the most common isotope of uranium found in nature
half life
the time required for something to fall to half its initial value (in particular, the time for half the atoms in a radioactive substance to disintegrate)
an organism that has characteristics resulting from chromosomal alteration
photosynthesis vs. respiration
Photosynthesis and respiration are reactions that complement each other in the environment.
trophic levels
high: most dominant species
low: algae
green revolution
refers to a series of research, development, and technology transfer initiatives, occurring between 1943 and the late 1970s, that increased industrialized agriculture production in India; however, the yield increase has also occurred world wide.
scientific method
Scientific method refers to a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge
causation vs correlation vs coincidence
correlation between two variables does not automatically imply that one causes the other
not in my back yard. The term (or the derivative Nimbyism) is used pejoratively to describe opposition by residents to a proposal for a new development close to them.
pesticide resistance
Pesticide resistance is the adaptation of pest population targeted by a pesticide resulting in decreased susceptibility to that chemical
Sustainability is the capacity to endure. In ecology, the word describes how biological systems remain diverse and productive over time
Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome, or an entire planet. Biodiversity is one measure of the health of ecosystems
Isotopes are nuclear configurations of atoms, with a specific number of neutrons and a specific elemental type.
radioactive waste
low: leftover bare minimum
high: intesne
is a transuranic radioactive chemical element with the chemical symbol Pu and atomic number 94
alpha beta gamma
Alpha – these are fast moving helium atoms. They have high energy, typically in the MeV range, but due to their large mass, they are stopped by just a few inches of air, or a piece of paper.

Beta – these are fast moving electrons. They typically have energies in the range of a few hundred keV to several MeV. Since electrons are might lighter than helium atoms, they are able to penetrate further, through several feet of air, or several millimeters of plastic or less of very light metals.

Gamma – these are photons, just like light, except of much higher energy, typically from several keV to several MeV. X-Rays and gamma rays are really the same thing, the difference is how they were produced. Depending on their energy, they can be stopped by a thin piece of aluminum foil, or they can penetrate several inches of lead

human beings to regard themselves as the central and most significant entities in the universe
fission vs fusion
One class of nuclear weapon is a fission bomb, also known as an atomic bomb or atom bomb. One class of nuclear weapon is the hydrogen bomb, which uses a fission reaction to “trigger” a fusion reaction
hydrogen as a fuel source
clean burning, no pollution
. So there is NO natural supply of Hydrogen, anywhere on Earth. There cannot be
renewable vs non renewable resource
Renewable energy is energy which is generated from natural sources i.e. sun, wind, rain, tides and can be generated again and again as and when required.
Renewable energy is energy which is taken from the sources that are available on the earth in limited quantity and will vanish fifty-sixty years from now
Passive Vs. Thermal Vs. Photovoltaic Solar
Passive: System that captures sunlight directly within a structure and converts it into low-temperature heat for space heating of for heating water for domestic use without the use of mechanical devices.
Photovoltaic Cell: Device that converts radiant (solar) energy dirctly into electrical energy. Also called a solar cell.
Radiation/ background/ isotope
radiation: fast-moving particles (particulate radiation) or waves of energy( electromagnetic radiation)
Isotopes: two or more forms of a chemical element that have the same number of protons but different mass numbers because they have different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei.
1st and 2nd laws of thermodynamics
The first law of thermodynamics mandates conservation of energy and states in particular that the flow of heat is a form of energy transfer.
The second law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of an isolated macroscopic system never decreases, or, equivalently, that perpetual motion machines are impossible.
pros:Better food quality and taste – Genetic modification can be used to make corn sweeter, peppers spicier, pears taste more like apples and fruit and vegetables keep longer.
Increased yields, often in less time – Genetic modification can make plants and animals grow bigger and faster, which can save time and money.
Fewer animal health problems – Genetic modification can result in animals that are resistant to diseases and can better withstand typical factory farm conditions.
More efficient production of food – Genetic modification can help farmers skip steps in the process, such as spraying their crops with pesticides.
cons:Safety risks – Genetic modification is a relatively new technology. It is difficult to tell what the long term effects of eating these foods could be.
Environmental risks – Introducing plants and animals that do not naturally occur into the ecosystem could have devastating effects on current species due to cross breeding and cross pollination.
Social risks – Poorer countries do not have the means to produce genetically modified foods. Industrial nations may rely less on these countries and cost them much needed income from exports.
Ethical risks – Changing the makeup of animals is unethical and could start a slippery slope resulting in the cloning of people or other similar prospects.
Collateral Damage – Making plants and animals that are resistant to bacteria can cause bacteria to become stronger and harder to kill. Making plants herbicide resistant can lead to weeds that are herbicide resistant as well.
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conservation vs. increased energy supply
Energy conservation refers to efforts made to reduce energy consumption.

Sustainable energy is the provision of energy that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs