EVPP 111 Final Review

The total fertility rate (TFR) for human population is affected by

availability of family planning services

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cultural and religious traditions

governmental policies

marriage age

The current population of the earth is approximately
6.7 billion
Zero Population Growth (ZPG) means that
Poeple will be born, will die, and will come and go but the size of the population will remain stable because the number of people leaving the population through death and emigration
I=P x A x T
Environmental Impact = Number of People (P) x Affluence per person (A) x environmental effects of technologies (T)
Consider a country with a stable population and no changes in technology. If that country undergoesa DECREASE in the affluence of each individual, the environmental impact oul be expected to…
decrease
Consider a country with no changes in technology r affluence of each individual. If that country has an INCREASE in population, the environmental impact would be expected to…
increase
Consider country A with a female literacy rate of 83% and country B with a female literacy rate of 56%. All else being equal, which country would most likely have a HIGHER TFR (total fertility rate)?
Country B
Consider country C in which the average age at which women marry is 23 years and country D in which the average at which women mary is 28 years. All else being equal, which country would most likely have a LOWER TFR?
Country D
Birthrates and death rates stabilize at lower levels, leading to a stable, but larger population during which stage of the demographic transition?
Post-Industrial
Birthrates remain high but death rates begin to decline, leading to an overall increase in population during which stage of demographic transition?
Transitional
In 1950, Country X had a population of 1,500,000. By 1967, Country X’s population has increased to 3,000,000. Coutnry Y had a population of 650,000 in 1973. In 1988, its population was 1,300,000. Which country had the fastest doubling of its population during the periods indicated?
Country Y
What correctly gives the formula for determining population change
(births + immigrations) – (deaths + immigrations) = population change
The total fertility rate (TFR) is
average number of children per woman for a country
NOT a condition believed to be in place when today’s developed countries went through the demographic transition
World population was larger than it is now
Two types of “overpopulation” were discussed. Human (people) overpopulation

is a common problem in developing countries

 

AND

 

occurs when too many people consume few resources per person

Two types of “overpopulation” were discussed. “Consumption overpopulation…”

is a common problem in highly developed countries

 

AND

 

occurs when each individual in a population consumes too large a share of the resources

The world’s most abundant fossil fuel is
coal
What fuel was primarily formed from the remains of ancient terrestrial plants in the great carboniferous forests and swamps
coal
what is NOT true about the formation of oil and natural gas
the cap rock (or trap) is a coarse grained, porous rock in which the oil and natural gas accumulates in the pores
Subsurface mining of coal ______________
results in less disturbance of the land then surface mining of coal
The mining and/or burning of coal produces and/or contributes to

acide deposition

increased carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere

land disturbance

acid mine drainage

;

(all of the above)

In __________________, huge amounts of earth are removed by heavy machinery in order to expose and extract the coal
surface mining
Accurate description of primary extraction of oil
Primary extraction removes about 1/3 of the total oil deposit below ground
Approaches mentioned in class to a “cleaner” fuel

1.Washing coal pre-combution to remove some impurities.

2. Using fluidized bed technology during combustion to get more thorough combustion at lower temperatures.

3. Using scrubbers post combustion to remove certain substances from the emissions.

4. Converting coal to methane, a cleaner burning fuel, and capturing the carbon dioxide that would be emitted.

(all the above)

Which energy source is used to produce a majority of electricity in the U.S. and world?
Coal
The largest consumer of oil is _______________. Whereas the largest producer of oil is _________________.
United States ………. Saudi Arabia
The fossil fuel that is naturally the “cleanest” to burn is
natural gas
Gas created at shallow depths by the anaerobic decomposition or organic matter by bacteria is called
Biogenic gas
Deposits of moist sand and oil (bitumen) are called
Oil sands
The fossil fuel that is naturally the “dirtiest” to burn is
coal
Which country has the highest per-capita energy consumption
U.S.
The world’s dominant enery source for the past ~40 years has been
oil
What is considered a NONrenewable resource
Coal
The amount of a ____________ changes only by the amount that is used each year whereas the amount of a ____________ changes as technology advances
resource ……..reserve
Exposure to high heat and pressure during formation produces coal that has characteristics of: dry, very compact, high heating value and NOT
wet
Lignite forms under conditions of relatively low heat and pressure. As a result, one would expect is to exhibit what?

soft

high moisture content

brownish color

Negative environmental impacts from the production and use of oil may occur due to:

Subsidence of land

Pollution of surface and groundwater

Loss, disruption, damage to ecosystems

Leaks and spills from pipes, storage tanks, transport vehicles

 

(all the above)

What is a demographic transition
A model of economic and cultural change used to explain the decling death rates and birth rates that occurred in developed nations as those nations experienced industrialization
The relationship between population growth and per capita national income ___________________
is such that as per capita national income increases, growth rate decreases
How does the burning of coal contribute to acid rain
Burning coal produces emissions containing sulfur and nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide which combine with moisture in the atmosphere to form sulfuric acid, nitric acid, and carbonic acid
Net energy expresses the difference between energy returned and energy invested. When comparing energy sources it is useful to use a ratio called the EROI. Assume that you have been researching existing and new energy sources and have determined their EROIs. Based only on the EROI, which would be most desirable?
10:1
What is “Hubbert’s Peak”?
A prediction, based on rates of extraction and new discovery, of when a country’s or global oil production will be at a maximum and then start to fall
Ocean energy sources that can be used to generate electricity include
wave energy and tide energy
what is NOT true about the potential problems associated with using ocean energy
It can produce greenhouse gases
the creation of a reservoir (behind a hydroelectric dam) causes many types of environmental and social damage EXCEPT
production of relatively clean, renewable energy
Hydroelectric power plants do not release CO2 directly into the atmosphere but CO2 and other greenhouse gases can be released from the reservoirs behind dams when
organic material submerged when the reservoir formed undergoes decay
Using hydropower to generate electricity has many advantages. What is NOT an advantage of hydropower?
Hydropower dams can disrupt the migration of migratory fish
True or False: Pumped storage is an example of the “impoundment” approach to taking advantage of hydropower?
True
Of the renewable/alternative sources of energy, which currently produces the largest percent of the United State’s electricity?
Hydropower
What is NOT TRUE concerning the combustion of biomass for energy production
does not produce any greenhouse gases
what is NOT considered a strategy for conserving energy in homes and buildings
increase the use of incadenscent light bulbs
True of False: Even if the electricity for electric cars comes from burning fossil fuels, the electric cars are still more energy-efficient than gasoline-powered cars
True
Devices that convert solar energy directly into electricity are called
Photovoltaic cells
One way to get hydrogen for a hydrogen fuel cell is via this reaction: 2H20 –> 2H2 –> O2 . In addition to water, what is required to make this reaction happen?
Electricity
The energy-efficient fo buildings can be improved by: use of energy-efficient appliances, use of energy-efficient fluorescent light bulbs, use of energy-efficient windows, fixing air leaks and NOT
use of less-efficient insulation
If one were to create electricity to run your appliances, which form of solar energy should they use
Photovoltaic cells
What is NOT a source of biomass for fuel
Wind
Renewable/alternative energy sources do not include
fossil fuels
In class we identified four of the least energy-efficient devices. What is not one of them?
Fluorescent light bulb
Theodore Roosevelt made many contributions to environmentalism. What is NOT one of his contributions?
He wrote, “Silent Spring”
______________ founded the Sierra Club
John Muir
________________ was not only the first national park in the United States, it was also the first national park in the world.
Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming
According to the conservation ethic:
national resources should be put to use but man has a responsibility to manage wisely
______________is the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws
Environmental Justice
The publication of __________________________ by Rachel Carson was a landmark environmental event of the 1960’s
Silent Spring
Who helped raise public awareness of the environment through his paintings of wildlife in natural positions and settings
John Audobon
What is NOT a true statement about the consequences associated with the use of geothermal energy
Geothermal technologies receive little attention because the amount of energy potentially available from this source is very small and would only meet our energy needs for a very short period of time
Geothermal can be used for heating space, producing electricity, and producing high-temperature heat for industry but NOT
liquid transportation fuel
The majority of the United State’s geothermal energy is currently produced in what state?
California
Methods of using geothermal energy

1. making use of the stable ground temperatures to heat or cool the interiors of buildings

2. using steam, produced by pumping water from the surface into cracks in hot-rocks below the surface, to turn a turbine to generate electricity

3. making direct use of hot water, to heat water or space, from hot springs near the surface

The amount of solar energy hitting the earth from any particular location depends on

the amount of cloud cover

the distance the location is from the equator

the time of day

the season of the year

 

(all the above)

Converting solar energy DIRECTLY into electricity requires
Photovoltaic Cells (or photovoltaics)
what would NOT correctly complete this statement, “Difficulties or concerns associated with the use of/reliance on solar energy include that…”
using it will upset the energy balance of nature
The use of overhangs that block sunlight from entering a building in the summer but allowit to enter in the winter is an example of
Passive Solar Heating/Lighting
Solar parabolic trough power generation is an example of what solar energy utilization method?

Solar Concentration (concentrated solar power)/solar thermal

 

Wind is considered an indirect form of solar energy because…
Uneven heating of the earth by the sun results in differences in atmospheric temperatures and pressures which in turn cause wind
What does NOT apply to wind power
causes no noise
True of False: Using wind to generate electricity has a lower EROI than when using nuclear energy or coal to generate electricity
False
Bat deaths associated with wind turbines are believed to be caused by ____________________ rather than by impacting the blades
drops in air pressure near the blades that leads to the explosion of the bats’ delicate lungs
“Wind Turbine Syndrome” is a name that some researchers are using to refer to the collection of symptoms that some people who live near wind turbines are claiming to be suffering from as a result of the wind turbines. These symptoms DO NOT include
Bright light from the solar concentration mirrors
What renewable/alternative energy source is currently the fastest growing
Wind

Which of the following is NOT a water pollution category:

Municipal

Industrial

Agricultural

Groundwater

Domestic

 

Agricultural
Conventional wastewater treatment (primary and secondary treatment) does NOT remove what pollutant from wastewater?
Phosphorus
What are NON-CONSUMPTIVE uses of water?

Using water to generate power at a hydroelectric plant along a river

 

Using waterways for commercial navigation

What are potential sources for groundwater pollution

Runoff from animal feed-lots

Poorly designed and maintained septic systems

Application of fertilizers to agricultural lands

Leaks from underground storage tanks containing gasoline and other hazardous substances

 

(all the above)

Renewable fossil fuels include all of the following except: Fossil Fuels, Geothermal, Sun, Wind, Biomass
Fossil Fuels
The amount of solar energy hitting the earth depends on

the amount of cloud cover, the distance an area of the earth is from the equator, the time of day, the season of the year

 

(all the above)

What does NOT complete this statement, “Difficulties with solar energy include…”
“using it will upset the energy balanceof nature”
Approximately ____ percent ofthe earth’s surface is covered by water yet the total amount of freshwater available for human use is approximately ______ percent.
75% …….. <1%
Most freshwater is present in the form
ice caps and glaciers
The upper limit of an unconfined aquifier of water is termed the
water table
What accounts for the major consumptive use of water in most parts of the world
agriculture (irrigation)
What is NOT one of the 4 board use categories for water
Nuclear Energy
What are the 4 braoad use categories for water

Domestic

Agricultural 

Industrial

In-Stream

 

What is NOT a water pollutant category
Phosphorus
Water pollutant categories

Toxic Chemicals

Dissolved Organic Matter

Nutrients

Physical Particles

 

What does NOT apply to wind power
Causes no noise

NOT true about the consequences associated with the use of geothermal energy

 

Geothermal technologies receive little attention because the amount of energy available from this source is very small and would meet our needs for a very short period of time
what is NOT considered a strategy for conserving energy in homes and buildings
Increase the use of incandescent light bulbs
__________ is a pollutant in the lower atmosphere that resultsfrom human activities but is a natural and beneficial gas in the stratosphere that prevents much of the solar ultraviolet radiation from penetrating to the earth’s surface
Ozones
Chemical formula for ozone
O3
The use of overhans that block sunlight in summer but allow the sunlight in winter to warm up the building is an example of
passive solar heating/lighting
The “ozone hole” originally was used to refer to the large area over _______________ in which there is a very significant seasonal thinning of ozone in the stratosphere
Antarctica
True of False: Ozone constantly forms, breaks down, and reforms in the stratosphere in a series of natural reactions involving molecular oxygen and ultraviolet light that occur in the stratosphere
True
Chloroflurocarbons were initially considered “dream chemicals” because of all of the following characteristics: chemically stable, nonflammable, nontoxic, odorless EXCEPT:
Long lag time between their release at ground level and their arrival in the stratosphere
No new commercial nuclear reactors have been built in the United States in a number of years. This is because…
There is negative public and political sentiment and uncertainty over reactor safety
_____________ occurs when neutrons impact and split the nuclei of certain atoms
Nuclear Fission
What is NOT a concern associated with nuclear energy
Low cost of building nuclear power plants
True of False: Despite the nuclearscares at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, nuclear power plant building projects increased by 200% over what was projected during the 1980’s
False
True of False: The United States Department of Energy oversaw the production of nuclear weapons in such a way that there is little, if any, residual radioactive waste that now needs to be disposed of in the nuclear laboratories
False
True of False: In a nuclear reactor, the control rods are made from fissionable material and they increase the speed of the reaction
False
What is NOT one of the primary air pollutants
Ozone
Primary air pollutants

Volatile Organic Compounds

Carbon Monoxide

Sulfur Dioxide

Nitrogen Oxides

what DOES NOT result in the production of particulates
interaction of CFCs with ultraviolet radiation
What processes result in the production of particulates

Farming

Construction

Volcanoes

Desertification

Which of the following is NOT a greenhouse gas?

 

Carbon Dioxide

Sulfur Dioxide

Methane

Chlorofluorocarbons

Nitrous Oxide

 

Sulfur Dioxide
What activity is responsible for the largest percentage of human-made carbon dioxide emissions 
Burning Fossil Fuels
Nuclear fusion
is the process in which 2 lightweight atomic nuclei combine to form a heavier nucleus, releasing a large amount of energy
The period of time required for one-half of a radioactive substance to decompose (change into a different material) is known as its…
half-life
The greatest problem with the use of nuclear power (to generate electricity) is its production of
Radiation that is released into the surrounding region

Air pollution results in all of the followin except:

 

damage to structures

damage to ecosystems

reduced value of aesthetic scenery

improved water quality

human health effects

improved water quality

All of the following are factors that contribute to extremely poor air quality in megacities of developing countries except:

 

extremely small human populations

heavy use of open fires

large numbers of poorly maintained autombiles

poor regulated industrial plants

large human populations

extremely small human populations
what greenhouse gas is more abundant in the atmosphere
Carbon Dioxide
What greenhouse gas enters the atmosphere primarily as a waste product produced by microorganisms living in rice fields, wetlands, and the guts of termites
methane
The difference between primary and secondary air pollutants is that primary air pollutants
enter the atmosphere directly, whereas secondary pollutants result from the interaction of primary pollutants in the atmosphereinthe presence of sunlight

The creation of a reservoir (behind a hydroelectric dam) causes significant environmental and social damage EXCEPT:

loss of farmland

Which of the following names the form of energy that can be succesfully used in buildings, is relatively cheap to construct, and simply uses the sun to heat a surface, which warms the inside of the building.

passive solar
What is considered among the least energy-efficient devices in widespread use today?

incandescent light bulb
nuclear power plants producing electricity for space heating or water heating
 

What is most responsible for ozone depletion?

chloroflurocarbons

What statement is false?

CFCs are heavy molecules that stay in the troposphere

Increases in ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth as a result of depletion of the ozone layer will cause an increase in everything EXCEPT 

yields of food crops

Chlorofluorocarbons are used for many purposes EXCEPT:

paints

 

What is NOT considered an ozone-depleting compound?

carbon dioxide

How do chloroflurocarbons cause the ozone layer to become depleted?

 

chlorine, released when chlorofluorocarbons breakdown in the presence of ultraviolet light, is very reactive and it reacts with ozone (O3),
eventually converting it to molecular oxygen (O2) and atomic oxygen (O)

What is Love Canal

A neighborhood in Niagara Falls, New York, which became the subject of national and international attention, controversy, and eventual environmental notoriety following the discovery of 21,000 tons of toxic waste that had been buried beneath the neighborhood by Hooker Chemical

.

What purpose does the Love Canal now serve
Reminder that we can’t just throw things away and that wastes don’t stay put
CERCLA and relationship to the “super fund”

Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act

 

Created in repsonse to the Love Canal issue

 

Puts a special tax on chemical and petroleum producers

Solid Waste

 

any unwanted or discarded material that isn’t liquid or gas

How much of the world’s solid waste is produced by the U.S.?
33%

U.S. solid waste comes from what combination of sources

 

 

mining, oil and gas production, agriculture and industry, sewage sludge, municipal solid waste

Municipal Solid Waste

 

from homes and businesses in or near urban areas

Major Components of MSW in the U.S.
Paper and Cardboard, Yard Waste, Food Waste
Hazardous waste

 

any solid or liquid material that contains one or more of 39 compounds at levels that exceed established limits

– catches fire easily
– reactive/unstable enough to explode to release toxic fumes
– capable of corroding metal containers

Hazardous waste does NOT include

 

radioactive wastes,hazardous and toxic materials discarded by households, mining wastes,oil- and gas-drilling wastes,liquid wastes containing organic hydrocarbon compounds,cement kiln dust, wastes from small businesses and factories that generate less than 100 kilograms (220 pounds) of hazardous waste/month

______ percent of the world’s hazardous waste is produced in the U.S.
75%
2 methods for dealing with waste

Waste Management

Waste Prevention

Aspects of Waste Management

High-waste approach

Views waste production as unavoidable

Attempts to manage waste by: burying, burning, transferring

aspects of waste prevention

 

low waste approach

views waste as potential resources or harmful substances

focuses on: discouraging production, encouraging prevention

How can we reduce waste and pollution

1st priority – change industrial processes, purchase different products, redesign products

 

2nd priority – reuse, repair, recycle, compost

 

Last priority – treat waste, incinerate waste, bury waste, release waste

2 types of land water
Surfacewater, groundwater
Types of surface water
drainage basin,watershed
Types of groundwater
unconfined aquifer, confined aquifer
Causes of Global Warming
Several gases in atmosphere, absorb infrared  radiation, lead to greenhouse effect, greenhouse gases
Global Warming prevention strategies

cut fossil fuel use

improve energy efficiency

renewable energy/resources

reduce deforestation