EVS 195

Wildernes Act
Sets aside forests as wilderness-not national parks.
National Environmental Policy Act 1969
to use all practical means and measures underwhich man and nature can be in harmony
Clean Air Act Amendments1970-1990
Congress got EPA to list pollutants and came up with a standard for each pollutant (national ambient air standards).

In 1990: prohibited states from suing each other over boarder lines. Set cap on sulfur dioxide, created emissions credits.

Federal Water Pollution Amendments1972
penalties for violations and saught to eliminate pollutants in water by 1985. Didn’t work. Get’s amended all the time.
Endangered Species Act 1973
Esthetic, ecological, educational, historical, recreational and scientific means to preserveit. Taking a species is prohibited only on government land but not public land. 1978 amended to include economic means to reorganize a species.

GOD SQUAD
Have the right to destroy a species. Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of the Interior, the Chair of the Council of Economic Advisors, the Secretary of the Army, the head of the EPA, the head of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and a state representative are considered in the God Squad.
National Forest Management Act 1976
Wanted timber men to mark every tree they cut since the growing tree cutting from WWII. Men were coming back and people were getting homes made of wood.

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Huge demand. Was rewritten:public must participate in planning. Guidelines for controversial management

Alaska National Interests Land Conservation Act1980
attempted to keep peace with conservationists. native americans, and industrials. settle the fight. creates 9 new parks and 35 new wilderness areas. artic national wildlife refuge, Carters last wish was to seal up Alaska
PM 10 Standard
required how much of a substance can be released at once into atmosphere.
Air Pollution Act
Strengthens EPA’s right to legistlate and;enforce.

Companies must show;how they are going to handle spills.

Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Mangmt Act1996
Developes US fisheries, fazes out fishers on coast, conserves. sets oceans as exclusive economic zone.

Addresses overfishing and breeding. IFQ=fishing quotas

Solid Waste Agency (SWANK) v. Army Court of Eng.2001
any wetland connected to another source must be protected. army corp sued for not being responsible for wetlands. impt bc effect bird migration. Reasonable Duck Rule=any wetland where a duck would go must be protected.
Nixon Administration
EPA CreatedRepublican
Carter Administration
1979 Dept of Energy createdAntiquities Act: 3x wildlife refuge and 2x natl parksHelped create superfund Program
Reagan Adm
1980 increased timber and mining on federal landsresearch $ cutlowered water and air standardsSagebrish Rebellion: Wester states didnt like federal influenceWise Use Movement: wanted to use natl parks land more efficiently: more activities.

Clinton Adm
1990s protected large areas in lower 48 states thru Antiquities ActEVA movement stengthenedmore reasearch and dataprotection of marine estuary areas (new idea)
George W Adm
EPA finding reducedair and water standards relaxedresearch funding cutincreased private use of federal lands for energy/minerals/timbersaid no to kyotoprotected hawaiian marine sanctuary
Statistics
can either summarize data or make inferences
Probablility Sampling
each sample has a distinct, determinant chance of being selected
Matter
Has mass thats affected by gravity and is occupied by space
Elements
Material that cant be broken down without changing it
Compounds
2 or more elements held together by bonds
mixtures
combo of 1 or more elements and compounds
atom
smallest portion of an element
Atomic#Atomic Mass
#=protons in a nucleusmass=combo of protons and neutrons
Uranium 235
only isotope that is fissionable.
ion
can gain or lose an ELECTRON
isotope
can gain or lose a PROTON
Canion
positive
Anion
Negative
Most matter exisits as what?
COMPOUNDS!
Which are stronger: Covalent or Ionic?
IONIC
Organic Coumpounds
find this out!
Inorganic Compounds
this too
What are the states of matter?
SolidLiquidgasPlasma
FussionFission
Fussion=JoiningFission=Separating
Stars are made up of what?
Plasma
Radiation
transfer of kinetic energy by wave motion
Radioactivity
nuclear atoms shoot chunks of mass and energy @ fixed rate.
2nd law of thermodynamics
eventually energy will run out. US has 16% energy efficiency rate
Ecology
how organisms interract and the non-living world.

human ecology=what we extract

Organism
any form of life. prokarotic(no nucleus)eukaryotic (nucleus!)
species
must be fertile!
List order of kingdoms
kingdomphylumclassorderfamilygenusspecies
Population
group of individuals at the same area at the same time
Biosphere
all ecosystems combined
Albedo
reflectivity rate.2/3rds of energy from sun is reflected back into space
Fragmentation
when companies sell their property to bigger corporate. shift species tracts. ex wolves
Single species management:KeystoneUmbrellaFlagshipIndicator
1) enrich ecosystem function (beavers)2) covers large areas in daily seasonal movements3) CHARISmatic:pandas/ sea turtles4) linked to specific biological elements: spotted owls/ woodpecker
Corridors
places for animals to reproduce. Impervious surface: degree of human impact
Restoration
Restoring highly degraded but localized sitesImproving productive capability in degraded production lands.Enhancing conservation values in protected lanscapes.

Enhancing conservation calues in productive landscapes.

Ecological Restoration
Assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged or destroyed.
Democratic Restoration
Funding: corps fund a lot of restoration for public relations, this fades if it is seen as bad. Public Participation: not experts so invalidUnresponsive and less affect.

May not want to participate.

Anti-Restoration Thesis
says its fake in nature. if we accept this than any ecosystem can be destroyed so must protect wilderness.

Restoration Thesis
admits that resored land is not the same but reduces human pressure. think that technology can be pulled off. says that the things that cant be replicated arent important anyways.
Deep Ecology
says that humans are a part of a landscape and humans must be integrated. William Cronum: says impossible to create wilderness. no such thing as anything that hasnt been touch by humans.
Thomas Malthus says human population is controls by 3 things:
War, Famine, Disease. Competitive advantage and traits will pass on.

Overpopulation, variation, limits to growth( anything that causes mortality reduces reproduction)Reproductive Success:have to be able to reproduce; and pass traits (meaning raise the organism w/ those traits)

Henry Cowles
species change due to their landscape overtime
Fredrick Clements
depending on climate-every ecosystem will have a climax in regional climate
H. Gleason
THinks that species go thru change at random and independently. Disturbance CLimax: random environmental disaster that supports ecosystem.

ex pines spike during hurricanes.

What is always the first thing to grown when a place has been wiped out?
LICHEN!
Island Biogeography
Looks at how fast things disperse across a landscape
Secondary Sucession
resetting a previous ecosystem to an earlier state
Three Forms of Symbiosis
results from co-evolution. when one species lives on top of or on other species.

Three forms:Mutualism: both benefitCometualism: One is benefited and the other not effectedPartalism: one is benefited at the expense of the other

Microsymbiosis
plants growing underneath and share nutrients like the hyphi mushrooms intertwined in the roots of a tree
Hydrolic Cycle
everything runs down and eventually enters the ocean. All plants are breathing and releasing water into the atmosphere.
Evapotranspiration
84% of it comes from the Oceans.

Water in atmosphere from oceans.

Carbon Cycle
going in and out of oceans and plants. things go to bottom of ocean and carbon setiment high. during plate tectonics sediment moves and carbon can re-enter the atmosphere. *less oxygen in hot water so not as many organisms
CAFO
Confined Area Feeding Operation
Phosphorous Cycle
PO 4 is a limiting substance that algae will use up. used to be in detergents but not anymore.

NC #1 supplier for phosphorous.

Sulfur Cycle
stored in organic materials and minerals. -thu volcanic eruptions-Sulfuric acid causes acid rain.Human impact= burning coal, copper, sulfur mining.
Biosphere
Terrestrial and AquaticEcotone=middle bt regionsEcocline=no clear barrier
Food CHain v. Food web
food chain has only 4 trophic levels adn the food web has higher diversity
SOIL
Formed by weathering of preexisting surface minerals. decomposistion. over 2500 minerals.

92% of these are scilicates

Igneous Rocks
cooling and crstalization of molten materials
Metamorphic Rock
Preexisiting rock that has been under pressure or heated up below melting point
Sedimentary Rock
stone from form sediment
UnloadingCrystal GrowthRootsSand Blasted Wind;
-runoff with cracks real rock-can crack rock apart-can make its way into rocks and breakget into cracks;
HydrolosisAcidationOxidation
1) chemical compound is broken down by water2) Broken down by acid3) oxidation # changes
Rate of Weathering
depends on climate/temperature, higher temps have faster composition and surface area. Soil=marginally renewable resource.
Soil StructureO A=rich in organic matterB =accumulationC= weathering soil, little organic matterR= parent material
[image]
Ultisols
Aluminum and iron (rusted and turned red)
Aridisoils
Arid, desert soils with calcium carbonate.
Oxisols
tropical rainforestsfew organic matterAluminum rich
Mollisols
midwest prarie, recent and glacially driven,; richest in the country
Histosols
richest in terristrial deversitypete soils
Spodosols
N forests and coastal plains
Entisols
Beach dunes
waterlogging
water that sits ontop of clay right below the roots and gets trapped.

Agriforestry
alternate forests with crops slows evaporation and more efficient.