evs test 1

cannot meet basic needs for food, clothing, shelter
Highly developed countries
low pop growth
high per capita incomes
complex industrialized bases
(U.S. Canada, Japan)
Less developed countries
low level of industrialization
high fertility rate
81% of world’s population
renewable energy
trees, fish, fertile soil, fresh water
non renewable energy
minerals, fossile fuels. (aluminum, copper, coal, oil, natural gas).
ecological footprint
a productive amount of land, h2o, and ocean required on a continuous basis to supply the person with food, wood, energy, water, housing, clothing, transportation, and waste disposal.
IPAT model
I- environmental impact
P- # of people
A- affluence per person
t- enviro. effect of technologies
I- P X A X T.
how can we ALL live well together
net balance
what we consume
environ. sustainability
meeting human needs without compromising needs for future generations (like natural resources).
we need to understand the…
effects of our actions
resources are not infinite
manage use of resource in order to ensure that is is used
sustainable development
economic development that meets needs of present generation w/o compromising future gen.
sustainable development
economic development that meets needs of present generation w/o compromising future gen.
sustainable development requires
environmentally sound decisions
economically viable decisions
socially equitable decisions
tragedy of the commons (Garrett Hardin)
not always fair…
-solving environ. problems between short term welfare and long term environ. sus. & societal welfare
-eventually one person succeeds while everyone else looses something
negative feedback-
a change that triggers a response that counteracts a changed condition, ex- thermostat.
positive feedback-
a change that triggers a response that intensifies a changing condition, ex- loss of global ice fields
a change in one part of a system that leads to a change in another part of a system.
5 stages to addressing environ. problem…
scientific assessment
risk analysis
public education and involvement
political action

(this is idealistic)

the scientific method must be
objective, or else it doesnt work
John James Audubon
famous for lifelike portraits of birds… ironically killed them to paint
wrote walden, lived among nature
George Perkins Marsh
wrote Man and Nature
Yellowstone National Park
established 1872, founded by Native Americans.
forced to leave to make sure park was left pure.
largest geothermal in world
had to prove to congress it was worthless so they could use as national park. if contained nat. resources, would use and not be able to become nat. park.
value nat. re. for USEFULNESS
Teddy Roosevelt, greatest conservationist ever
biocentric (all like important)
protect nature because all life deserves respect
John Muir
wilderness act, to protect wilderness areas of public lands. Sierra Club.
antiquities act
allowed president to set aside land with some sort of importance, not to be disturbed by the public
author of A Sand Country Almanac
author or “Wilderness Essay”
had epiphany after killing wolves about predator and prey, killing off all wolves no predators left.
Rachel Carson
author of Silent Spring. investigated harmfull pesticides (DDT- outlawed now).
Environmental Impact Statements
for any proposed federal action, an EIS is required. ex- a highway or dam construction.
environ. economics
study of how we use limited nat. resources to satisfy unlimited wants
economics is UTILITARIAN
using parts of environment to create goods and services WITH ECONOMIC VALUE. can be converted to currency
Rational Actor model
assumes all individuals spend limited resources to maximize individual utility (we want the most for our money)
an ideal economy…
resources are allocated efficiently (no societal discrimination).
externalities of an ideal economy…
costs/benefits are shared by others, ex- if one buys bike, everyone benefits (positive externality).

Positive and negative externalities… burning land and trees, you benefit for money, but everyone else suffers (negative externality)

marginal cost of POLLUTION
costs of small additional amount of pollution
marginal cost of ABATEMENT
cost of reducing small amount of pollution
Strategies for pollution control- Command and control
-gov’t agency requires limitations to emissions or pollutants
-discourages development of low cost alternatives
-economists dislike this
strategies for poll. control- environmental taxes/tradable permits
-if taxes set at correct level, private marginal cost of pollution=social cost of pollution
-economists like this
tradable permits- cap & trade approach
-an optimal level of pollution is set… and eventually reduced over time.
-permits issued, pollution becomes an economic commodity
critiques of environmental economics-
-hard to assess real cost of env. poll & abatement
-impacts of poll. on people and nature uncertain
-ecosystem services evaluation
-utilitarian economics appropriate? why cant we get clean air/water for cheap?
national income accounts
the total income of a nation for a given year
criterias to collapse (Jared Diamond)
1) humans hammering away at environment (natural resources)
2) climate change
3) trading with unfriendly & hostile partners–> China, Middle East
4) trading with friendly partners –> UK, Canada
5) dealing with environmental issues… natural selection
similar organisms freely interbred
group of same species in same area at the same time
populations of different species living in same area at the same time
community and physical environment
several interacting ecosystems
soil and rock
study of energy transformation and how it changes
closed system
doesn’t exchange engery
open system
exchanges energy with surroundings
open system
exchanges energy with surroundings
first law of thermodynamics
energy cannot be created or destroyed, only change from one form to another.. we must capture our energy from another source
-focus on QUANTITY
second law of thermodynamics
when energy is converted from one form to another, some is degraded to heat.
-heat highly entropic (disorganized)
-focus on QUALITY
cellular respiration
taking in energy from plants or other sources and using it for biological work
cellular respiration
taking in energy from plants or other sources and using it for biological work
trophic types- autotroph
primary producers (things that are photosynthesized)
trophic types- heterotrophs
secondary consumers
trophic types- saprotrophs
decomposers get their energy from our bodies
pyramid of #’s
organisms at base of the pyramid more numerous
-fewer organisms fill each successive level
pyramid of biomass
measure of total amount of living material
pyramid of energy
how much energy present at each trophic level and how much is transfered to the next level
Gross primary productivity
total amount of energy that plants capture and assimilate in a given period of time
net primary productivity
tells us how much energy is available for producers
-the energy in plant tissues after cellular respiration has occured
-rate at which this organic matter is actually incorporated into plant tissues for growth.
-decreases over time… because a portion of used energy is converted to heat
4 observations of natural selection
1) overproduction- species produce more offspring thatn willing to survive
2) variation- each offspring will vary
3) limits on pop. growth- keep population in check
4) differencial reproductive success
no nucleus or other membrane bound organelles
cells organized into complex structures enclosed within membranes
biological communities
vary in size and lack boundaries
-nestled within each other
primary succession
begins in previously uninhabited environent
secondary succession
begins in environment after destruction of all or part of earlier community.
-does not follow primary and is faster
intimate relationship between members of 2 or more species. (living in or on the individuals of another species).
interdependent evolution- evolve together through natural selection. adapt together
symbiotic relationship
-both species (who are living in close association) provides benefits to each other,
taking out of another’s expense.
ex- varroa mites and honeybees
-weakens hosts, but rarely kills it
consumption of 1 species to another.
predator and prey: pursuit and ambush
predator and prey adapt to each other in order to catch or escape.
pursuit- chase down and catch
ambush- attack by hiding, attack with colors or light to distract or blind, etc. ex- trap door spider
plants defenses-
adaptation to discourage herbivores from eating. ex- poison ivy, pineapple
animal’s defenses-
mechanical defenses- spikes, shells
living in groups- elephants
chemical defense- skunk
competition- intraspecific
competition for same resources between individuals of same population
competition- interspecific
competition for same resources between species
ecological niche
organisms role within the structure and function of an ecosystem
fundamental niche
potential idealize ecological niche, might not be what theyre doing, but have the potential to do.
realized niche
the lifestyle the organism actually pursues and the resources it actually uses
keystone species
exerts profound influence on a community… more important to community than what is expected based on abundance.
– usually not very many of them, but once removed, ecosystem thrown off.
species richness
# of species in a community determined by quantity and quality on realized/ fundamental niches.
– better able to provide ecosystem services
– higher levels of community stability
-better able to withstand disturbances