EVSC 4320 Midterm 2

Caudal fin types
Rounded
Truncate
Emarginate
Forked
Lunate
Fusiform
Aerodynamic body type, good for rover predators
Carengidae
(family) Jacks
Fast-swimming predatory fished, waters above reefs
Forked caudal fin
piscivore, sometimes feed on inverts
Serrenidea
(family) Groupers and Sea Bass
Carnivorous, stalk prey and quickly attack
Many species are hermaphrodites
Rounded caudal tail, dorsal spikes
Chaetodontidae
butterfly fishes
“hair teeth”
Deep, laterally compressed bodies
Can have elongated jaws
Feed on small inverts, sometimes algae
Pomacanthidae
Angel Fish
name means thorn cover, strong preopercle spines
Eats zooplankton inverts, pretty much anything small
Can be hermaphroditic
Balistidae
Triggerfish
Rounded, laterally flattened body, anterior dorsal spines on fin, one can lock
Moves by sculling
Angular heads, extend into strong jaws to crush shells, urchins
Acanthuridae
Tangs, doctor fish
Pair of spines, one on either side of tail
Deep compressed body, scrapes food off reefs, other things
Change color, juveniles are yellow, adults are blue
Pomacentridae
Damselfish
Tend algae gardens, territorial
Stays close to reefs
Labridae
Wrasses
Eat anything
Abundant on reefs
Cleaner fish, eat parasites off other fishies
Lutjanidae
Snappers
Actively schooling, feed at night
Eat crustaceans, few eat plankton
Flat ventral surface
Haemulidae
Grunts
Similar to snappers
Grunt audibly by rubbing tooth plates together
Benthic invert feeders
Scaridae
Parrot Fish
Top and bottom teeth fused together to form a beak
Feed on coral algae, sometimes coral itself (makes marks on reef)
At night move into crevices, secrete mucus bubble, hiding their signature
Jawless fish
Hogfish, lamoreys
Lack both jaws and paired appendages
Cartilage skeletons
Scaleless bodies
Hogfish
Slime fish
Bottom dwelling, deep marine water
Feed with use of dental plates and grasp with horny cusp, try to full flesh off prey
Difficult to tear thick skins of dead whales, enter through mouth
Produce copious amounts of slime
Lampreys
Fresh and salt water
Possesses an oral disk and rasping tongue with tooth like plates of keratin
Chondrichthes
modern cartilaginous fish
Sharks, rays, etc
Cartilage skeleton, sometimes with calcium salts
Process jaws and paired fins
Skin covered with placoid scales (directional, don’t grow with the fish)
Sharks
Have a heterocreal tail
Heavier than water, must keep swimming
Compensate density with large liver, can be 20% of body, produces low density compound called squalene
Eyes can sense colors, use nictitating membrane to protect them
Olfactory senses important, in front of mouth, 2/3 of brain dedicated to it
Lateral line also crucial
Can detect electrical currents as low as 1 mv using “Amipllae of Lorenzini”
Osmoregulation, retains nitrogen waste as urea
Rays
Flattened bodies, greatly enlarged pectoral fins that attach to head, reduced dorsal and caudal fins
Eyes and spinacles on top of head, gill is slits on ventral surface
Lack anal fin, teeth to crush prey
Benthic dwellers
Swim using a bird-like motion, have a long tail, often with a spine
Skates
Similar to rays
Have extra fins on their tails, no spines
Moves by propagating waves through their bodies