Exam 2 Environmental Science

What factors determine an area’s climate?

Incoming solar energy
The earth’s rotation
Global patterns of air and water movement
Gases in the atmosphere
The earth’s surface features

Different types of deserts and what makes them different..

  • Tropical
  • Temperate
  • Cold

Different types of grasslands and what makes them different..

  • Tropical-grazing/browsing animals.
  • Temperate-cold winters and hot summers often converted to farms.
  • Cold (Arctic Tundra)- Permafrost, animals have thick fur

Different types of forests and why they are different..

  • Tropical-hot and high mositure, recycles of scarce soil nutrients
  • Temperate-cooler temperature and less moisture, broad leaf decidous trees
  • Cold- northern conferious, boreal

How are humans disturbing terrestrial ecosystems?

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How much is currently degraded?

  • Agriculture, large desert cities, farming, etc.
  • 60%

Difference between aqautic species and examples…

  • Plankton-drifting organisms
  • Phytoplanton-primary producers for aquatic food webs.
  • Ultraplankton-Tiny bacteria
  • Zooplankton-Secondary Consumers
  • Nekton-Strong Swimmers
  • Benthos-Bottom dwellers
  • Decomposers- mostly bacteria

Causes and effects of Ocean Acidification…

  • Oceans absorb C02
  • C02 reacts with oceans water to form weak acid

Climate
Areas General Pattern of atmospheric conditions
Weather
Set of physical conditions of the lower atmosphere
Greenhouse effect
Trap solar energy and release it as heat
Biome
Large land regions with certain types of climate and plant life
Mass Extinction
Widespread and rapid decrease in the amount of life on earth.
Background Extinction
Standard rate of extinction
Habitat Fragmentation
Process where large habitats break down into smaller ones
Poaching
Illegal hunting or capture of wild animals
Threatened species
Any species vulnerable to extinction
Endangered Species
Likely to become extinct
Endangered species
Likely to become extinct
Functionally Extinct
Species no longer plays a significant role in the ecosystem
Pastures
Land covered with grass suitable for grazing animals
Rangeland
Grassland, Shrubland, Wetland, etc. That are grazed by domestic livestock or wild animals.
Habitat Corridors
Connects fragmented habitats. Separated by human activity.
Buffer Zone
Zonal area that lays between two or more other areas.
Wilderness
Uncultivated, uninhabited, and inhospitable region.
Fish Farm
Place where fish are artificially bred or cultivated
Fishery
Activity involved in catching fish
Keystone Species
Plant or animal that plays a unique and crucial role in the way a ecosystem functions
Mitagation
Steps taken to avoid certain impacts
Food Desert
Parts of country vapid with fresh fruit, vegetables, and other foods.Due to lack of stores.
Slash and Burn Agriculture
Technique that involves the cutting and burning of plants to create fields.
Salinazation
Process where water soluble salts accumulate in the soil.
Desertification
Type of land degradation in which dry land becomes arid.
Waterlogging
Saturation of soil with water
Alley Cropping
Planting rows of trees with wide spacing’s and other plants planted in the spacing’s.
Polyculture
Using multiple crops in the same space
Vertical Zones of the open sea

  • Euphotic Zone-Top of ocean, little nutrients, phytoplankton.
  • Bahtyal Zone-Dimly lit, Smaller fish.
  • Abyssal Zone-Bottom of ocean, not really explored, big fish and other creatures.

What is happening to chesapeake bay?
Depletion of oysters
What is happening to Haiti?
Earthquake?
What is the harm of invasive species?

  • Disease
  • Change foot webs
  • Decreasing biodervisity
  • Out-competing native species

HIPPCO

  • H-Habitat destruction, fragmentation, degradation
  • I-Invasion
  • P-Population and resource growth
  • P-Pollution
  • C-Climate Change
  • O-Over Exploitation

Greatest threat to our environment

What is happening to bees?
Colony Collapse Disorder
Three grain crops that sustain majority of humans?
Rice, Maize, Wheat