released directly from the source
secondary pollutants
modified to a hazardous form after entering the air and mixing with other environmental components
fiitiv emissions

do not go through smoekstack

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dust from human activities

Tropospheric Ozone

irritates respiratory system, reduces lung function, aggravates asthma


formed by reaction of NOx and hydrocarbons


one of main reasons we regulate N and hydrocarbon emissions

Sulfur Compounds

* conventional pollutant*

natural sources of sulfur in atmosphere include evaporation from sea spray, volcanic fumes, and organic compounds

predominant form of anthropogenic sulfur is sulfur-dioxide from fuossil-fuel combustion

S source
NItrogen Compounds

*conventional pollutant*


nitrogen oxides are reacive gases formed when nitrogen is heated above 650 degrees C in the presence of oxygen or when nitrogen compounds are oxidized

Source of NOx
combustion in car engine – why you have a catalytic converter
Carbon Oxides

*conventional pollutants*


Carbon monoxide – colorless, ordorless, toxic gas produced by incomplete fuel combustion

Volatile Organic Compounds

*conventional pollutant*

organic chemicals

oxidized to CO and CO2

plants are largest source

Potchemical Oxidant

*convenional pollutant*products of secondary atmospheric reactions drven by solar energy


ozone formed by splitting nitrogen dioxide


*conventionl pollutants*

many toxic metals occur as trace elements i fuel






halogens – flourine, chlorie, bromine


Clean Air Act (1963)
first national air pollution control
Clean Air At (1970)

rewrote original

identified critical pollutants

established ambient air quality standards:

1. primary standards: human health

2. secondary standards: materials, environment, aesthetic and comfort

Point Sources

discharge pollution from pecific locations

factories, power plants

non-point sources

scattered or diffuse, having no specific location of discharge

agricultural fields, feedlots

atmospheic depoisition
containants carriedby air currents and precipitated into watersheds or directly onto surface waters
bodies of water that have clear water and low biological productivity
bodies of water tat are rich in organisms and organic material
process of increasing nutrient levels and biological productivity
Clean Water Act


established a National Pollution Discharge System which requires a permit for any entity duming wastes in surface waters

Successes: clean up of point source pollution

Problems: difficult to deal with non-point sources and MTBE


Source Reduction
cheapest and most effective way to reduce water pollution is to avoid producing it or releasing it into the environment
Boiling Water Reactor

water from core boils to make steam, directly driving turbine generators

highly radioactive water and steam leave containment structure

Canadian deuterium reactors
opearate with natural, un-concentrated uranium
graphite moderator reactor
operate wit a solid moderator instad of a liquid
high temperature, gas cooled reactors
uranium encased in tiny ceramic-coated pellets
process-inherent ultimate safety reactors
reactor core submerged in large pool of boron containing water within a massive pressure vessel
breeder reactors

create fissionable plutonium and thorium isotopes from stable forms of uranium


uses plutonium reclaimed from spent fuel from conventional fission reactors as starting material

Distributional Surcharges
small fee levied on all utility customers
Renewable Portfolo
suppliers must get minimum percenage of power from renewable sources
Green Pricing
allows utilites t profit from conservation pograms and charge premium prices for renewable energy
Colorado Renewable Energy Portfolio


3% of electricityfrom renewabl sources by 2007

10% by 2015

establish net mastering systems for home solar installations 4% of electricity from solar

Wind Farms

large concentrations of wind generaors producing commercial electricity


neg impacts: interrupt view, destroy sense of isolation, bird kills

Passive Solar Heat

using absorptive structures with no moving parts to gether and hold heat

* greenhouse dsign


Active Solar Heat
generally pump heat-absorbing mediu through a collector, rather than passivey collecting heat in a stationary object
Photovoltic Solar Energy
photovotaic cells capture enegy and convert it directly to electrical current by separating electrons from parent atoms and accelerating them across a one-way electrostatic barrier

use ongoing electrochemical reactions to produce electric current

 run on pure oxygen and hydrogen prduce no waste products except drinkable water and radiant heat

Hydrogen for Fuel

great to use for energy and low/no polution

hard to use b/c takes energy to get H2 from water and hard to store, dangerous


prduced from vegtable oils

CO and hydrocarbon emissions are 20-40 lower than conventional diesel

CO2 emissions generally much lower as well