released directly from the source
secondary pollutants
modified to a hazardous form after entering the air and mixing with other environmental components
fiitiv emissions
do not go through smoekstackdust from human activities
Tropospheric Ozone
irritates respiratory system, reduces lung function, aggravates asthma formed by reaction of NOx and hydrocarbons one of main reasons we regulate N and hydrocarbon emissions
Sulfur Compounds
* conventional pollutant*natural sources of sulfur in atmosphere include evaporation from sea spray, volcanic fumes, and organic compoundspredominant form of anthropogenic sulfur is sulfur-dioxide from fuossil-fuel combustion
S source
NItrogen Compounds
*conventional pollutant* nitrogen oxides are reacive gases formed when nitrogen is heated above 650 degrees C in the presence of oxygen or when nitrogen compounds are oxidized
Source of NOx
combustion in car engine – why you have a catalytic converter
Carbon Oxides
*conventional pollutants*CO2Carbon monoxide – colorless, ordorless, toxic gas produced by incomplete fuel combustion
Volatile Organic Compounds
*conventional pollutant*organic chemicalsoxidized to CO and CO2plants are largest source
Potchemical Oxidant
*convenional pollutant*products of secondary atmospheric reactions drven by solar energy ozone formed by splitting nitrogen dioxide
*conventionl pollutants*many toxic metals occur as trace elements i fuelmurcerynickelberylliumcadmiumarsenichalogens – flourine, chlorie, bromineCFCs
Clean Air Act (1963)
first national air pollution control
Clean Air At (1970)
rewrote originalidentified critical pollutantsestablished ambient air quality standards:1. primary standards: human health2. secondary standards: materials, environment, aesthetic and comfort
Point Sources
discharge pollution from pecific locationsfactories, power plants
non-point sources
scattered or diffuse, having no specific location of dischargeagricultural fields, feedlots
atmospheic depoisition
containants carriedby air currents and precipitated into watersheds or directly onto surface waters
bodies of water that have clear water and low biological productivity
bodies of water tat are rich in organisms and organic material
process of increasing nutrient levels and biological productivity
Clean Water Act
1972established a National Pollution Discharge System which requires a permit for any entity duming wastes in surface watersSuccesses: clean up of point source pollutionProblems: difficult to deal with non-point sources and MTBE 
Source Reduction
cheapest and most effective way to reduce water pollution is to avoid producing it or releasing it into the environment
Boiling Water Reactor
water from core boils to make steam, directly driving turbine generatorshighly radioactive water and steam leave containment structure
Canadian deuterium reactors
opearate with natural, un-concentrated uranium
graphite moderator reactor
operate wit a solid moderator instad of a liquid
high temperature, gas cooled reactors
uranium encased in tiny ceramic-coated pellets
process-inherent ultimate safety reactors
reactor core submerged in large pool of boron containing water within a massive pressure vessel
breeder reactors
create fissionable plutonium and thorium isotopes from stable forms of uranium uses plutonium reclaimed from spent fuel from conventional fission reactors as starting material
Distributional Surcharges
small fee levied on all utility customers
Renewable Portfolo
suppliers must get minimum percenage of power from renewable sources
Green Pricing
allows utilites t profit from conservation pograms and charge premium prices for renewable energy
Colorado Renewable Energy Portfolio
20043% of electricityfrom renewabl sources by 200710% by 2015establish net mastering systems for home solar installations 4% of electricity from solar
Wind Farms
large concentrations of wind generaors producing commercial electricity neg impacts: interrupt view, destroy sense of isolation, bird kills
Passive Solar Heat
using absorptive structures with no moving parts to gether and hold heat* greenhouse dsign 
Active Solar Heat
generally pump heat-absorbing mediu through a collector, rather than passivey collecting heat in a stationary object
Photovoltic Solar Energy
photovotaic cells capture enegy and convert it directly to electrical current by separating electrons from parent atoms and accelerating them across a one-way electrostatic barrier
use ongoing electrochemical reactions to produce electric current run on pure oxygen and hydrogen prduce no waste products except drinkable water and radiant heat
Hydrogen for Fuel
great to use for energy and low/no polutionhard to use b/c takes energy to get H2 from water and hard to store, dangerous
prduced from vegtable oilsCO and hydrocarbon emissions are 20-40 lower than conventional dieselCO2 emissions generally much lower as well