Final ES3

Adam Smith


Economist : CAPITALISM

*free market (laissez-faire)

*thougt the free market would efficiently allocate resources, gov’t should have little control

*resources are limitless

*wrote “wealth of nations”

*ALLOCATION (efficiency)

agrees with 3, 5, 6

Thomas Malthus


*pioneer of population studies, saw it in a negative way (overpopulation will strip the food supply-famine, disease, war)

*there aren’t enough resources, the dismal truth

*first to address scale!

*(green revolution, advanced technology have delayed malthus predictions)

David Ricardo



*everyone benefits from the free trade!

*who gets what? who is entitled to what?

*escalator analogy-workers are the power. capitalists fight on way up. landlords get free trade

*rent stays consistent (landlords benefit)

*wager and profits always changing as a result of the economy.

*believes in low resource prices (only hurts landlords)

Karl Marx



*the communist manifesto

*workers are the most valuable, because they do everything & they should be the only to add value to the production process.

*dialectical materialism: one of the first comprehensive theories to place the environment and economy at the base of civilization– push towards classless society

Herbert Spencer


*extender of smith: wanted free economy/market

*social darwinism, survival of fittest

*rich are rich because they deserve it

*believed humans couldnt do anything to deplete the resources

*if it didnt benefit humans, doesnt have point of existence


Gifford Pinchot


*loved the outdoors &believed that we could deplete

*one of the first to impliment the reneway of forests

*control forest usage and help, stopped clear cutting

*creating sustainable forests, would cut them down, but replant.

*conservationist, use it as long as its sustainable

John Muir


*nature has rights and benefits, first real proponent to say that humans were destroying nature and the world around us

*fought for rights of environment & think of terms of surrounding

*started sierra club



Julian Simon


*only thinks in terms of economics

*people are the only thing important

*nature is only there to provide for humans

*environmentalism is based on bad science- if animals die, survival of fittest



Garret Hardin


*tragedy of the commons

*we must limit freedom

*limit immigration, birth control, dont let poor countries make babies

*commited suicide

*only one child to replace you


Paul Ehrlich

(1932- NOW)

*believes that the population growth is a ticking bomb

*new malthusian

*believes population is going to crash

*concerned with carrying capacity


*finite resources


George Perkins Marsh


*wrote man and nature


*resource depletion

*wants to use resources effectively, thought globally


Utilitarian conservation
resources should be used to benefit the greatest good, for greatest #, for the longest time (nature is for human use)
Roderick Nash


*nature is beautiful and not subject to us

*introduced romaticism


William Graham Sumner


*classical liberalism

*laiseefair, govt interference only messed up order

*like smithy & spence pants

*saw earth as limitless and adjustable & has capacity for whatever comes up

*humans cant damage plant

Rachel Carson

wrote silent spring

*inspirational book that inspired environmental movement