Final Exam

What is an international regime?
An international regime is a set of principles and rules that govern an institution
What is an intergovernmental organization?
An intergovernmental organization is an international institution that follows a regime or set of rules and principles
What is ozone?
Ozone is an inorganic molecule. It is a gas that makes up a small portion of the atmosphere
What is the difference between tropospheric and stratospheric ozone?
The tropospheric ozone may be natural but it is largely generated by humans emitting gases. The stratospheric ozone exists naturally but is being damaged by humans emitting gases. Troposphere is closer to the ground.
What is the “ozone layer,” and why is it important to life on Earth?
The ozone layer is a layer of gases, made up of mostly ozone, that block. (Absorb) UV radiation for the sun. It is important to life on Earth because it keeps the Earth cool and a suitable temperature for life to exist. It also blocks humans and animals from UV radiation
What was the international political response to the ozone problem? How successful is it considered to have been?
The international response was the Montreal Protocol which phased out the emission of ozone depleting substances such as chloro-flouro carbons
What is the greenhouse effect? What is a greenhouse gas?
Greenhouse gases are molecules that trap and absorb heat and UV radiation in our atmosphere. The greenhouse gas effect is the trapping of heat and UV radiation in the atmosphere by greenhouse gases
Which gases are greenhouse gases, and where do they come from?
Carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide are greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide is emitted from burning fossil fuels. Methane and nitrous oxide are emitted from agricultural waste
How does the current composition and temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere differ from the past?
The Earth’s temperature has always risen and fell but it is currently rising more rapidly than ever. Carbon dioxide has increased in the atmosphere
Which countries are most responsible for the carbon dioxide that has accumulated in the atmosphere thus far, and which countries’ emissions are currently growing most rapidly?
China and the United States are most responsible for the carbon dioxide accumulation this far. Developing countries such as China and India have the most rapidly growing carbon dioxide emissions
What signs of climate change have been observed at the Earth’s poles thus far?
The artic ice caps have been shrinking due to global warming and the warming of the ocean water which warms the water the ice is on
What signs of climate change have been observed in the Earth’s oceans thus far?
Increasing ocean acidification and increasing sea level rise
How much change in the Earth’s average temperature is predicted for 2100?
The Earth’s temperature is supposed to rise from 2 degrees Fahrenheit to 11.5 degrees Farenheit by 2100 depending on greenhouse gas emissions
How does agriculture contribute to climate change?
Agriculture contributes to climate change because methane is released from cows and other livestock and
Why is climate change a “commons” problem?
Climate is a “commons” problem because climate is global and is affected by all nations emitting greenhouse gases
What are the consequences of climate change for biodiversity?
As climate change increases, biodiversity decreases
What are the consequences of climate change for human health?
Climate change can lead to global warming which increases temperature. An increase in temperature will produce more heat related illnesses. Also climate change will lead to more natural disasters which are hazardous to peoples’ health. Changes in temperature or precipitation patterns could also enhance the spread of some diseases
What is the range of projected sea level rise by 2100? What is the main source of uncertainty in these projections?
Sea level rise is predicted to rise between 3-6 feet by 2100. The main source of uncertainty in these predictions is
What is the difference between mitigation and adaptation?
Mitigation means to prevent a bad or poor outcome from happening
Adaption means planning on how to deal with negative outcomes
What has been the international political response to climate change? How successful is it considered to have been?
Intergovernmental organizations such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC implemented the Kyoto Protocol which was designed to have countries reduce their carbon emissions. The Kyoto Protocol only achieved mild success and some countries, including the United States, did not participate in it.
Who designed the UMass Dartmouth campus? What is the architectural style of the design? What are some key features of the design?
The campus was designed by Paul Rudolph. It was designed as brutalist architecture. Some key features are the cantilevers and the spiral shaped benches and campus design
What are the consequences of the design of the UMass Dartmouth campus for energy use?
The design of the Umass Dartmouth campus has prevented sustainable energy use. The buildings are difficult to heat due to the concrete. The windows allow heat to escape.
What is a vernal pool, why is it important, and where can one be found near campus?
A vernal pool is a body of water that is only seasonal. The ground remains moist even in the season in which the pool isn’t present. It is a source of water for many wildlife species. A vernal pool can be found in the woods of Umass Dartmouth