First Exam Terms

 Lacey Act (1900) 
 prohibits transporting live/dead wild animals/parts across state borders without a federal permit 
 Antiquities Act(1906) 
allows president to protect areas of scientific or historical interest on federal lands as national monuments
 National Park Service Act (1916) 
parks are to be maintained in a manner that leaves them unimpaired for future generations
Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act
 percent excise tax on sporting arms and ammunition fund acquisition and improvement of wildlife habitat, introduction of wildlife into suitable habitat, research into wildlife problems, etc. 
Wilderness Act
authorized govt. to protect underdeveloped tracts of public land as part of the National Wilderness System which can be used only in nondestructive forms of recreation
 National Environmental Policy Act(NEPA)(1969) 
requires federal agencies to integrate environmental values into their decision making processes by considering the environmental impacts of their proposed actions and reasonable alternatives to those actions
 Endangered Species Act(1973) 

  • authorizes the determination and listing of species as endangered and threatened;
  • prohibits unauthorized taking, possession, sale, and transport of endangered species;
  • provides authority to acquire land for the conservation of listed species, using land and water conservation funds;
  • authorizes establishment of cooperative agreements and grants-in-aid to States that establish and maintain active and adequate programs for endangered and threatened wildlife and plants;
  • authorizes the assessment of civil and criminal penalties for violating the Act or regulations


 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1973) 
 primary law governing the disposal of solid and hazardous waste set national goals for:

  • Protecting human health and the environment from the potential hazards of waste disposal.
  • Conserving energy and natural resources.
  • Reducing the amount of waste generated.

  • Ensuring that wastes are managed in an environmentally-sound manner.


 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act(1980) 
 aka Superfund provides broad federal authority to clean up releases or threatened releases of hazardous substances that may endanger public health or the environment 
 Montreal Protocol(1987) 
international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of a number of substances believed to be responsible for ozone depletion
 Clean Air Act(1990) 
EPA sets limits on how much of a pollutant can be in the air anywhere in the United States. States are not allowed to have weaker pollution controls than those set for the whole country.
 “The Kyoto Meeting”(1997) 
 Countries aggreed to commit to reducing their emissions of carbon dioxide and five other greenhouse gases (GHG), or engaging in emissions trading if they maintain or increase emissions of these green house gases.
Tennessee Valley Authority
federally owned corporation in the United States created to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development in the Tennessee Valley, a region particularly impacted by the Great Depression.
Federal Land Policy and Management Act
governs the way in which the public lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management are managed.

Rachel Carson
 American marine biologist and nature writer whose writings are credited with advancing the global environmental movement. attention to conservation and the environmental problems caused by synthetic pesticides; Silent Spring 
Gifford Pinchot
 first Chief of the United States Forest Service known for reforming the management and development of forests in the United States and for advocating the conservation of the nation’s reserves by planned use and renewal;
;Teddy Roosevelt;;
first American president to consider the long-term needs for efficient conservation of national resources
Henry David Thoreau
;alarmed at the loss of many wild species;known for his book Walden, a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings;
John Muir
;;American naturalist, author, and early advocate of conservation of U.S. wilderness;founded the Sierra Club;
Franklin Roosevelt
;second wave of conversation;
Jimmy Carter
president responsive to environmental concerns
OPEC embargo of 1973
Middle-eastern OPEC nations stopped exports to the US and other western nations to punish the western nations that supported Israel, their foe, in the Yom Kippur War; result was higher oil prices all throughout the western world
nuclear reactor accident in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the Soviet Union. It was the worst nuclear power plant accident in history resulting in a severe release of radioactivity into the environment following a massive power excursion which destroyed the reactor
;Exxon Valdez;
;oil spill in which the tanker hit Prince William Sound’s Bligh Reef; one of the largest spills in U.S. history and one of the largest ecological disasters 
Three Mile Island
the most significant accident in the history of the American commercial nuclear power generating industry.

It resulted in the release of a significant amount of radioactivity

Yellowstone National Park
first national park
 Yosemite National Park 
national park in California
Love Canal
 neighborhood in Niagara Falls, New York, discovery of 21,000 tons of toxic waste buried beneath the neighborhood 
Lake Erie
 became very polluted in the 1960s and 1970s. The water quality deteriorated due to increasing levels of the nutrient phosphorus in both the water and lake dead zone persists in the central Lake Erie Basin 
Bhopal, India
 Union Carbide subsidiary pesticide plant released methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas, killing approximately 3,800 people instantly frequently cited as the world’s worst industrial disaster;