First Term Exam

Interdisciplinary
one that employs concepts and techniques from numerous disciplines and brings research results from these disciplines together into a broad synthesis
Sustainability Development
Use of resource to satisfy current needs without compromising future availability
Natural Selection
traits that enhance survival and reproduction continue in population
Adaptation
a trait that promotes reproductive sucess
Mutations
An error in the DNA that may surpass in the offsprings
Directional Selection
Drives a feature in one direction
Stabilizing Selection
Extremes are selected against
Disruptive Selection
trait diverge in two or more directions
Artificial selection
conducted under human direction
Adaptive selection
a burst of species diversification that occurs in response to environment change
Species
members can produce fertile offspring
Population
a group of individuals of a species that live in the same area
Allopatric speciation
species formation due to physical separation
Sympatric speciation
populations becomes reproductively isolated within the same area
Endemic Species
species with a small geographic distribution
Small population
lack genetic diversity
Population ecology
quantitative dynamics of populations
Community Ecology
Interactions among species
Habitat
the environment in which an organism lives
Niche
an organism’s use of resources and its functional role in a community
Fundamental Niche
optimal niche –> unlimited resources
Realized Niche
a subset of fundamental niche due to species interactions–> more competition
Population Density
the number of individuals within a population
Major Earth Spheres
Biosphere, Atmosphere, Geosphere and Hydrophere
Isolated System
neither nor energy can be exchanged across the boundaries
Closed System
energy can be exchanged across the boundaries, but matter cannot
Open system
Both matter and energy can be exchanged
Dynamic Equilibrium
system process balancing, constantly changing and interactions
Homeostasis
system tends to maintain stable internal conditions
Emergent Properties
system characteristics not evident in components on their own
Cycle
a system of two or more connected reservoirs that transfers matter and energy
Crop Rotation
alternation the crops grown field from one season or year to the next
Contour Farming
plowing furrows sideways across a hillside
Terracing
level platforms are cut into steep hillside, forming “staircase” to contain water
Monoculture
large expanse of a single crop
Transgenic
an organisim that contains DNA from another species. And the genes that have been moved between them.