flash cards ch 13-14

The top layer of the upper mantle is called the asthenosphere.
body waves
Body wave (seismology), a type of seismic waves
A craton (Greek kratos / ?????? (neut.) “strength”) is an old and stable part of the continental crust
convection currents
The convection currents of the red liquid will be seen to rise and also fall, then eventually settle, illustrating the process as heat
deep-focus earthquake
A deep-focus earthquake is an earthquake that occurs at depths between 300 and 700 km beneath the Earth’s surface.
An earthquake (also known as a tremor or temblor) is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth’s crust that creates seismic waves.
The epicenter or epicentre is the point on the Earth’s surface that is directly above the hypocenter or focus, the point where an earthquake
;Fault (geology), planar rock fractures which show evidence of relative movement;
A deep-focus earthquake is an earthquake
hot spots
More than a hundred hotspots beneath the Earth’s crust have been active during the past 10 million years
In the Earth, the lithosphere includes the crust and the uppermost mantle which is joined to the crust across the mantle.
mantle convection
Mantle convection is the slow creeping motion of Earth’s rocky mantle in response to perpetual gravitationally unstable variations in its density.
Fossil evidence for Pangaea includes the presence of similar and identical species on continents that are now great distances apart.
primary waves
P-waves can be produced by earthquakes and recorded by seismometers.
ridge push


Ridgepush is a proposed mechanism for plate motion in plate tectonics. Because mid-ocean ridges lie at a higher elevation than the rest of the ocean floor,

secondary waves

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A type of seismic wave, the S-wave, secondary wave, or shear wave (sometimes called an elastic S-wave) is one of the two main types
seismic waves
Seismic waves are waves that travel through the Earth or other elastic body, for example as the result of an earthquake
shallow-focus earthquake
An earthquake whose focus is located within 70 kilometers of the earth’s.
slab pull
Slab Pull. As a crustal plate moves further from an oceanic ridge, it cools and becomes increasingly dense.
surface waves
 Ground Waves The ground wave is actually composed of two separate component waves. These are known as the SURFACE WAVE
A terrane is not necessarily an independent microplate in origin, since it may not contain the full thickness of the lithosphere.
thin-skinned thrusting
However, at shallower levels, its displacement was accommodated by thin-skinned folding and thrusting in the Interandean Zone.
volcanic belt
 A volcanic belt is a large volcanically active region. Other terms are used for smaller areas of activity, such as volcanic fields.
volcanic island arc
There are two types of volcanic arcs: oceanic arcs (commonly called island arcs, a type of archipelago) and continental arcs.
A volcano is an opening, or rupture, in a planet’s surface or crust, which allows hot, molten rock, ash, and gases to escape from below the surface.