|CA Health and Safety Code (SHSC)
|Know what the food manager knows
|The disease causing organism is carried by the food and water products into the suspecting host (diseases such as salmonella, tuberculosis, typhoid fever, cholera, and viruses). The organism which causes the disease is taken from one source to another.
This will be an organism, vector or vehicle (being the food), or host (the food poisoning victim).
Once the organism has found his target host (for example: humans), if provided the right environment, the bacteria may infect and
grow within the body.
While this infection is occurring in the body, there is a lag time, most commonly referred to as an onset time. This is the time when
the host is infected with the disease causing organism to the time the host exhibits it’s first symptoms. In classical food infection
cases, the symptom of fever will usually accompany the infection.
The fever is caused by the body to fight off the infection, such as the case for a cold or flu infection.
Symptoms of headache,
nausea, vomiting and or chills will usually differentiate from organism to organism. Another simple identification method to the type
of organism causing the infection will be the different onset times.
|Organisms that cause foodborne intoxication will culture themselves within the food product. Organisms that can culture in the food
usually have a better chance of making the humans sick because of the good possibility of the organism to continually multiply.
Bacterial organisms for example grow in a exponential pattern. They multiply by doubling itself. The illustration above is an example
of that theory. The number of bacteria will make the difference in both food intoxications and food infections. A few organisms will probably do no harm. It is when the number of organisms is in the hundred of thousands, even millions when the human bodies digestive system and immune system cannot handle the organism’s attack. Bacteria such as Staphylococcus au reus have been know to double in about 15-20 minutes. Given a few hours, it can reach toxic levels.
Food intoxication is where an organism, such as bacteria multiply to great numbers and then produce a toxin while in the process.
Again, quantities of the toxin produced must be in such that it overrides the human’s defense system and causes illness. Food
intoxications (poisonings) are usually more fast acting than food infections. However, this should not be the sole symptom that
should be investigated in a foodborne illness.
Food intoxication differs from food infections because fever is not a usual symptom. Poisoning usually does not produce fever
because the toxin is acted immediately upon the body and does not give the body a chance to kick in their defense mechanisms. To
give a simple example, think of food poisonings as consuming alcohol. A little alcohol consumed will probably result in no
symptoms. However, if a large amount of alcohol is consumed, symptoms will appear. When an individual is drunk, he is under the
influence, or technically poisoned. He or she will exhibit signs of drowsiness, imbalance of sensory and motor nervous skills. If
intoxicated to a high degree, vomiting can result.
|Scombrotoxin (Histamine Poisoning)
SCOMBROID FOOD POISONING
|A chemical food poisoning that is on the rise is from the Scombridae species (spiny finned food fish) of fish; namely tuna. This is a
histamine like chemical food poisoning which results when consuming an affected part of the fish. The symptoms are flushing,
tingling at the lips and mouth, dizziness and headaches.
When the fish are landed on board the fishing vessel, the fish can incur injuries to the skin due to rough handling. Although the fish
may be dead, these wounds can harbor many types of organisms from the ocean water. As a natural defense mechanism of the
fish, the muscle surrounding the wound can produce a histamine type chemical that will fight off possible infection.
Once the fish is processed, cut, prepared, cooked for consuming, the one part of the affected fish may still contain the histamine
chemical. Cooking does not denature or chemically alter its affect. If the consumer eats the affected part of the fish, they can
possibly suffer the symptoms of scombroid poisoning. Interestingly, a section of the same fish may not contain the histamine and
can be safe to eat. Careful inspection of wounds to the fishes body, careful handling of the fish and rapid refrigeration is
INFECTIOUS AGENT· CHARACTERISTICS & MODE OF TRANSMISSION
Scombroid (tuna family) species of fish, mahi mahi (or dolphinfish or dorado), bonito, mackerel which produce a histamine
metabolized by bacteria such as Klebsiella pneumonia and Morganella morganii. The bacterial organism is introduced inside the
fish’s intestines. Mishandling and improper refrigeration of fish can damage parts of the fish where the bacteria can thrive. The fish,
long after death and processing can react to these bacterial organisms and produce a histamine to blocks its infection. This process
can occur before the fish spoils with foul odors and discoloration. There has been reports that certain cheeses (Swiss) has been
implicated to the production of this toxin. Infectious dose: 100 mg.l1 00 grams of fish.
Temperature Range: 86°F (optimum).
MODE OF TRANSMISSION
Consuming the portion of the fish that has the histamine. Since the histamine is heat stable, cooking, smoking or freezing the
product will have no effect and will maintain its potency.
Flushing of the face and extremities, headache, diarrhea, rapid heartbeat, difficulty breathing with a sharp metallic or peppery after
taste in the mouth of the victim. Onset period: immediately to 30 minutes. Duration is 12 hours. There are over 180,000 cases
Fish must be properly processed and refrigerated. Although scrombroid poisonings are responsible for up to 35% of all
seafoodborne related illnesses, restaurants should check the fish they get thoroughly for mis-handling and or qualities relating to
Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium africanum are primarily from humans. Mycobacterium bovis is from cattle.
MODE OF TRANSMISSION
The exposure to the bacilli in airborne droplets from the sputum of infected persons. Prolonged contact with infected persons may
lead to infection. Indirect exposure from dust may occur but it is considered extremely rare. In the past, contact with patients with
open lesions or ingestion of unpasteurized milk from infected cows, and from overcrowded housing situations increased the
possibility of communicability. The bovine tuberculosis results from the exposure to infected cows, or the ingestion of contaminated unpasteurized milk.
Man or cattle.
Initial infections usually go unnoticed. The tuberculin sensitivity appears in a few weeks. Lesions commonly heal leaving pulmonary
or tracheobronchial lymph node calcifications. In the chronic disease stage, the primary skin lesions heal, but occasionally lead to
pulmonary tuberculosis. This is characterized by arrest and remission, cough, fever, fatigue and weight loss. Incubation period: 4·6
weeks to show lesions.
Imp~ove poor or bad social living conditions, such as overcrowding. Persons should be periodically monitored especially if
exposed to suspected areas of infection. Highly infective individuals should be hospitalized. Upon recovery, the preventive
treatments should continue to discourage new infections.
|Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP)
|Anyone who consumes shellfish is susceptible to this poisoning and commonly occurs from eating contaminated shellfish during
certain months of the season. The mussel shellfish has been the most documented product in the cause of this chemical food
poisoning. The most common affected time period is the summer months, namely, May through October. An oceanic condition
called red tide occurs when an algae develops an alkaloid poison (harmless to the shellfish). During the red tide, the shellfish
consumes the poisonous dinoflagellate. The dinoflagellates are a variety of ocean algae which can bloom in the summer season of
the year. When an algal bloom occurs, the dinoflagellates die and produce the red tide phenomenon.
The more common name of this dinoflagellate is Gonyaulax cantenella As the shellfish consumes water and food, the
dinoflagellate, the Gonyaulax ?.. contains an endotoxin which is killed when consumed. The alkaloid poison is released within the
shell fish and becomes a poisonous product. The poison then becomes stored in the digestive and muscle organs of the shellfish. If
Gonyaulax is readily found in the environment, the shellfish can build up dangerous levels of the poison. The shellfish can slowly rid
itself of the toxin if placed in an environment free of Gonyaulax. The shellfish must be purged in clean water for a long period for the
shellfish to eliminate the toxin out of its system.
The Gonyaulax ?. toxin is very potent. Probably the most potent toxin known to man. It ranks in strength with strychnine and
muscarine (commonly used as rodent bait). It is heat stable in acid or neutral solutions, but can be gradually destroyed by boiling in
an alkaline solution. In laboratory tests, one millionth of a gram can kill a mouse on injection whereas a few milligrams to a human
can be lethal. When humans consume the infected shellfish, the poison reacts immediately and produces symptoms of muscular
incoordination, lightheadedness, ascending paralysis and can result in death due to respiratory failure within 2 to 12 hours of
consumption. The easiest way to prevent this poisoning from occurring is not to consume the shellfish products during the specified
summer months . ••• Demoic acid poisonings is similar to this type of poisoning associated with toxic algae.
An isolated control method is to possibly try to prevent the algal bloom from occurring using copper sulfate (CuS04) but due to the
vastness of the coastal oceans this is not an economical altemative.
|DEFINITION: A legal additive to prohibit bacterial growth and retains the quality of the food, An
example is sodium nitrate is a legal additive for meat. It prevents the growth of botulism
organisms and retain the quality of the food,
A food additive is any substance in the food that affects the characteristics of the food and it usually
becomes part of the food, There can be various reasons to use food additives, It can be intentional,
therefore it serves a specific need. Examples are:
1. Vitamin D (400 international units) in pasteurized milk.
2. Preservatives such as BHA, BHD which are oxidants used in breads. ·
3. Nutritional supplements.
4. Color modifiers.
5. Flavor enhancers.
6. Chemicals to alter the chemicaVphysical characteristics of food (liquid to gel, solid to liquid, etc.).
7. Moisture controllers (water activity in food).
Unfortunately, through research many of the chemical food additives of the past has been found to be
toxic or carcinogenic (cancer causing). As testing procedures and testing equipment improve with time,
new procedures can be used so that certain food additives that are hazardous can be avoided.
pg. 352, 353
|Chemical preservatives are defined as any chemical when added to food prevents or retards deterioration. The following are more examples:
1. INORGANIC ACIDS AND SALTS
a.. SODIUM CHLORIDE
Known as common table salt, sodium chloride dehydrates food (takes water out of food cells). The chloride ion has a slight disinfectant effect.
b. HYPOCHLORITES (SALT OF HYPERCHLORUS ACID)
There are food approved chlorine systems for produce disinfection.
c. NITRITES AND NITRATES
d. BORIC ACID (VERY RARE)
e. SULFURS (SULFITES)
Stops the enzyme reaction in fruits and vegetables, preserves food and prevents discoloration.
Approved to use for manufacturing but must be labeled for it’s use. Illegal to add in restaurants as a
food preservative. Malachite green can be used to detect addition of sulfites in food.
1. PHOSPHORIC ACID COrk
A common ingredient in soft drink sodas. It produces an acidic reaction in soda to enhance
carbonation. Can kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria if use in higher concentrations. This acid is
commonly used to clean calcium buildup in restaurants and pools.
g. TRISODIUM PHOSPHATE (TSP)
A preservative in some fruits as it liberates the production of negative hydroxides. It injures the cell
wall of fruit.
h. CALCIUM PROPIONATE
A food preservative which is considered safe to preserve breads.
Certain metals can be used as a preservative in food provide a germicidal effect. An example of this
metallic element is silver. Silver in foods tend to combine with proteins and forms a layering effect which helps destroy or inhibit bacteria growth.
Iodine is a good example of a halogens that is used as a preservative in food which reacts to destroy the cell wall of the bacteria. Many commercial wrappings contain iodine which inhibit and destroy the growth of bacteria.