Forestry exam 1

epicormic shoot
crown is damaged yield shoots coming out of lower trunk/bark
dendrology
study of the ID of woody plants
tree
mostly single stemmed, woody plant with mature height of at least 20-25 feet being relatively long lived and relatively deep rooted
monoecious
male & female on one plant
didecious
male and female plants seperate
fascicle
needle bundle (coniferous species)
importance of forests
habitat, stream protection, CO2->O2, wood, recreation
how much of the world is forested
30%
forestland
an area at least 1 acre with at least 10% tree cover
woodland
forested area with 5-10% tree cover
timberland
forested area capable of growing 20 cubic feet of wood per year (1/4 of a cord), commercial
hectare
10,000 square meters
acre
43,560 square ft
important aspects of a forest
age structure, specie diversity, density (forest & individual species), wildlife
forest
a group of trees that exert an influence on ecology on its area, forests create a microclimate @ the forest floor
biome
a landscape where the environment leads to characteristic vegetation
community
interactions among species in an area
ecosystem
interactions between the earth and biosphere in an area (biotic & abiotic)
ecotone
boundary between two communites/ecosystems
riparian
an environment associated with a river
orographic
associated with mountains and topography
red light (red part of spectrum)
can penetrate forest canopies, not useful for photosyntheses, too much can cook plants
urban forest
trees and associated living organisms in an urban area
US forestland ownership
57% private, 43% public; 74% or eastern forestland is PRIVATE, 78% of western forestland is PUBLIC
Tennessee forestland
86% private, 14% public
increasing forests
harvesting less than is grown
deciduous
all leaves lost on periodic basis, without leaves for a portion of the year
evergreen
tree always remains green, leaves live more than one year (2-15+), portion of leaves die each year
advantages of confer needles
longer retention allows lower nutrient demand and they can survive a shorter growing season; structure reduces water use (can survive summer drought)
key threats to US forests
insects & disease (foreign), non-native invasive plant species, wildland fire, development, climate change
Tree (part 2!)
form/height as a perennial woody plant at maturity greater than 20 ft tall with a single main trunk having an elevated crown and an extensive root system
importance of height
light, seed distribution, escape damage from animals & abrasion from other plants, improved pollenation
costs of height
needs extra support, greater transport requirements (water & nutes up against gravity, sugars from leaves down to roots expends energy)
main functions of central core of wood
transport (vascular system i.e. xylem conducts water and nutes) & support (thickened walls provide extra support for height growth)
niche
where the tree lives and what it does
Gaussian competitive exlusion rule
no two organisms share the same niche
tree form
results from a combination of grow in different dimensions
primary growth
lengthening of stems (UP)
secondary growth
thickening of stems (width)
meristems
regions of the tree where cell division(tree growth) occurs
apical meristems
located at the ends of branches
light compensation point
level at which leaf carbon balance is zero, PS=respiration
light saturation point
PS no longer increases with increased light