Forestry – Regional Forests

*Southern Pine Forest*Size and ownership statistics
– 120 million forested acres over 12 states- 90% private of which 30% is industrial- 10% public
*Southern Pine Forest* Physiography, geology and soils
– Lower Coastal Plain – flat, wet, and mostly sandy soils.- Upper Coastal Plain – more topography, sandy acidic (and well-drained) soils.- Piedmont – rolling hills of clay and clay loam soils.

*Southern Pine Forest* Climate and Weather
– Warm, moist, LONG growing season (200-300 days)- 40-60” precipitation regularly through the year.
*Southern Pine Forest*Historical uses
– Pre-settlement indigenous peoples and explorers- 1650s settlement and land clearing begins, until 1860s- Rebuilding until the 1930s – reversion to forest
*Southern Pine Forest*Major Forest Type (1 of 2)
Longleaf – slash: Mainly in the lower coastal plain; some production forestry.- Pinus palustris – Longleaf pine- Pinus elliottii – Slash pine
*Southern Pine Forest*Major Forest Type (2 of 2)
Loblolly-shortleaf: Big-time production forestry featuring loblolly pine.- Pinus taeda – Loblolly pine- Pinus echinata – Shortleaf pine
*Southern Pine Forest*Dominant Management Practices
– Short rotation tree farming on industry and some non-industrial private forest lands (i.e., investment land owners to Granny’s “back forty”: primarily loblolly and slash pine.- Restoration and ecosystem management on public: longleaf pine.- Wildlife management, watershed protection and recreation.

*Southern Bottomland Hardwood Forests*Size and ownership statistics
– 30M acres of hardwood forests located primarily along major rivers and minor streams- 85% private of which 25% is industrial.
*Southern Bottomland Hardwood Forests*Physiography, geology and soils
– Alluvial deposits: gravels, sands, silts and clays depending on flooding.- Creates river bars, fronts, flats, slough/swamps and ridges/terraces
*Southern Bottomland Hardwood Forests*Climate and Weather
– Same as southern pine forests (interspersed): warm, moist with long growing season.- 40-60″ of precipitation regularly throughout the year
*Southern Bottomland Hardwood Forests*Historical uses
– Pre-settlement indigenous peoples – hunting and subsistence cropping.- 1650s settlement and land clearing for cotton, including necessary levees and drainage. – 1930s agricultural abandonment begins – reversion to brush. – 1980s interest in restoration of native bottomland hardwoods
*Southern Bottomland Hardwood Forests*Major Forest Type (1 of 3)
Cottonwood-willow: on river bars and fronts, with sandy soils and regular flooding- Populus deltoides – Eastern poplar- Salix nigra – Black willow
*Southern Bottomland Hardwood Forests*Major Forest Type (2 of 3)
Mixed bottomland hardwoods: on flats and ridges/terraces; 1’ is a big difference- Liquidambar styraciflua – American sweetgum- Quercus nigra – Water oak- Ulmus americana – American elm- Carya aquatica – Water hickory
*Southern Bottomland Hardwood Forests*Major Forest Type (3 of 3)
Baldcypress-tupelo:- Taxodium distichum – Baldcypress- Nyssa aquatica – Water tupelo- Nyssa sylvatica – Black tupelo
*Southern Bottomland Hardwood Forests*Dominant Management Practices
– Cottonwood production forestry, for pulp and paper products on abandoned farms – Restoration of native bottomland hardwood forests and baldcypress swamps
*Appalachian Uplands Forests*Size and ownership statistics
– 84 M acres- 99% commercial (meaning trees grow well enough to make a living)- 82% privately owned and 18% publicly owned.
*Appalachian Uplands Forests*Physiography, geology and soils
Three basic physiographic provinces (see province figure): – Appalachian and Blue Ridge Mountains (my home forest!).

– Ridge and Valley province (like the Shenandoah Valley).- The Appalachian and Cumberland Plateaus in West Virginia and Tennessee primarily.

*Appalachian Uplands Forests*Climate and Weather
– Temperatures: 100-200 days of frost-free growing season- Precipitation: 127-200cm annual rainfall, evenly distributed among seasons
*Appalachian Uplands Forests*Historical uses
– Indigenous peoples: modest agriculture in the valleys.

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– EuroAmerican Settlement: extensive land clearing including mountain slopes for the timber and to open up grazing lands.- 20th Century: “high grading” of the forests; death of the American chestnut forest type.

*Appalachian Uplands Forests*Major Forest Type (1 of 3)
– Yellow Pine Type: (northern version and extension of southern pines; early successional)- Pinus virginiana – Virginia pine- Pinus rigida – Pitch pine- Pinus taeda – Loblolly
*Appalachian Uplands Forests*Major Forest Type (2 of 3)
– Pine / Hardwood Type: (driest, poorest hardwood sites, as a transition from pine types; mid successional often)- Quercus prinus – Chestnut oak- Quercus coccinea – Scarlet oak- Nyssa sylvatica – Black tupelo
*Appalachian Uplands Forests*Major Forest Type (3 of 3)
– Oak – Hickory Type: (most widespread; mid and lower slopes, broad valleys in all 3 regions)- Quercus alba – White oak – Quercus velutina – Black oak- Carya glabra – Pignut hickory- Carya ovata – Shagbark hickory
*Northeastern Forests*Size and ownership statistics
– 93% of the forest in privately owned; 78% small owners and 22% industry owners.- Only 7% publicly owned.
*Northeastern Forests*Physiography, geology and soils
– Landforms in the Northeast are a mix of upland plateaus and mountain ranges
*Northeastern Forests*Climate and Weather
– Temperatures: 90-180 frost free days (growing season).- Precipitation: 80-130cm per year, evenly distributed.
*Northeastern Forests*Historical uses
– Indigenous peoples: modest agriculture in the valleys, with burning and light harvesting on the mountainsides.

– Euro-American Settlement: extensive clearing for agriculture between 1700 and 1880, reducing forest cover from near 100% to 30%.- Timber, charcoal, tannin, lumber.

*Northeastern Forests*Major Forest Type (1 of 3)
– Upland spruce/fir type: found on high-elevation and northern cold sites with thin soils; very slow growing and shade tolerant species. – Picea rubens – Red spruce – Abies balsamea – Balsam fir
*Northeastern Forests*Major Forest Type (2 of 3)
– Northern hardwood type (“Birch-Beech-Maple”): Found on the best soils in lower slope positions with a nice glacial mix for soils.- Betula alleganiensis – Yellow birch – Fagus grandifolia – American beech – Acer saccharum – Sugar maple
*Northeastern Forests*Major Forest Type (3 of 3)
– Oak and Oak/pine types: An extension of the oak-hickory and oak-pine types from the Appalachian Forests, mid-successional leading to northern hardwoods on more moist sites.

*Boreal Forests*Size and ownership statistics
– Canada: ~45% forested; 1/3 of world’s boreal forest is in Canada (2nd behind Russia).- Alaska: ~36% forested, but mostly non-commercial (slow growth in a harsh environment)- Ownership: Most land is publicly owned
*Boreal Forests*Physiography, geology and soils
– Typically flat or rolling country with numerous rivers, lakes, and bogs created by glaciation.
*Boreal Forests*Climate and Weather
– Temperatures: Average summer HIGH temperatures are 50-60°F but mean daily temperature is closer to freezing. – Precipitation: 20-55cm annually, primarily as snow.

– Growing season: Very short at 90 to <50 days.

*Boreal Forests*Historical uses
– Indigenous peoples: Impacts on forests were relatively light because of low population density, and consisted of burning and occasional tree cutting.- Euro-Americans: Harvesting in the boreal forest in Alaska has been light to date given its remoteness.
*Boreal Forests*Major Forest Type (1 of 3)
– Closed coniferous forest type: This type is true forest vegetation but ONLY occurs in the southern part of the “boreal ecoregion”- Picea glauca – White spruce- Picea mariana – Black spruce
*Boreal Forests*Major Forest Type (2 of 3)
– Early successional forest type: (found following fire or flooding, is invaded by conifers with time).- Populus tremuloides – Quaking aspen- Betula papyrifera – Paper birch
*Boreal Forests*Major Forest Type (3 of 3)
Lichen woodland type and Woodland-tundra ecotone: scattered trees and shrubs in a sea of tundra.- Picea mariana – Black spruce
*Lake States Forests – the “melting pot”*Size and ownership statistics
– 46 M acres of forest land.

– 60% of the forests are privately owned (mostly non-industrial)- 38% publicly owned.- 2% tribal.

*Lake States Forests – the “melting pot”*Physiography, geology and soils
– Generally flat or rolling country with numerous rivers, lakes, and bogs created by glaciation during the Pleistocene Era.- Parent material is glacial deposits.

*Lake States Forests – the “melting pot”*Climate and Weather
– Precipitation: 60-80cm annually, with modest snow. Heavier snow occur near the Lakes. – Temperature: Highs to 110F and lows to -30F.- Growing season: Short at 80 days but up to 150 days south of the Lakes.
*Lake States Forests – the “melting pot”*Major Forest Type (1 of 3)
– Mixed pine forest type: (THE distinct forest vegetation of the Lake States).- Pinus banksiana – Jack pine- Pinus resinosa – Red pine
*Lake States Forests – the “melting pot”*Major Forest Type (2 of 3)
– Early successional forest type (aspen-birch): (found following fire or flooding on better soils).

– Populus tremuloides – Quaking aspen- Betula papyrifera – Paper birch

*Lake States Forests – the “melting pot”*Major Forest Type (3 of 3)
– Oak and Oak/pine types: an extension of the oak-hickory and oak-pine types from the Appalachian Forests, mid-successional leading to northern hardwoods on more moist sites.
*Rocky Mountain Forests*Size and ownership statistics
– 400/500M acres of forest land!- Only 40% of the forested land in the Rocky Mountains is “commercial”.- 60% federal ownership!
*Rocky Mountain Forests*Physiography, geology and soils
– Complex, young geomorphology that creates a mosaic of mountain ranges (some quite tall and striking), broad fertile basins, narrow valleys, steep canyons, and massive plateaus (e.g.

, the Colorado Plateau) that were once lake bottoms. – Lots of erosion.

*Rocky Mountain Forests*Climate and Weather
– Temperatures: Regulated by elevation and topography- Growing season: <50 to 200 days depending on topography, elevation and latitude.
*Rocky Mountain Forests*Major Forest Type (1 of 3)
– Pinyon-juniper woodland type: (driest, lowest elevations in middle and southern Rocky Mountains.- Pinus edulis – pinyon pine- Juniperus monosperma – One-seed juniper- Juniperus scopulorum – Rocky Mountain juniper- Juniperus osteosperma – Utah juniper
*Rocky Mountain Forests*Major Forest Type (2 of 3)
– Ponderosa pine forest type: (on wetter sites than pinyon-juniper woodlands).- Pinus ponderosa – Ponderosa pine- Quercus gambelii – Gambel oak
*Rocky Mountain Forests*Major Forest Type (3 of 3)
– Douglas-fir/Mixed conifer forest type: (wetter and/or higher elevation covering the full range of the Rocky Mountains).- Pseudotsuga menziesii – Douglas fir- Abies concolor – White fir- Abies lasiocarpa – Subalpine fir- Picea pungens – Colorado blue spruce
*Pacific Northwest Forests*Size and ownership statistics
– 104 M acres of forest land.- 50% federally owned.- 50% private
*Pacific Northwest Forests*Physiography, geology and soils
– Coastal ranges, flat interior valleys, Cascades mountain ranges.- Elevation and distance from the ocean (rain shadow) are very important!- All very productive soils given depth, organic matter and moisture availability.
*Pacific Northwest Forests*Climate and Weather
– Precipitation: “Mediterranean” climate – wet winters (90% of the precipitation) and dry summers.- Growing season: 50 to 300 days depending on distance from the ocean and elevation.
*Pacific Northwest Forests*Major Forest type (1 of 3)
– Douglas-fir/western hemlock forest type: the MAIN EVENT (good sites in both mountain ranges).- Pseudotsuga menziesii var menziesii – Coast Douglas fir- Tsuga heterophylla (climax) – Western hemlock- Thuja plicata (climax) – Western red cedar- Alnus rubra (early successional) – Red alder
*Pacific Northwest Forests*Major Forest type (2 of 3)
– Coastal hemlock/Sitka spruce forest type: (next to the ocean to several miles inland; very very wet and productive).- Picea sitchensis – Sitka spruce- Tsuga heterophylla (climax) – Western hemlock- Pseudotsuga menziesii var menziesii – Coast Douglas fir- Thuja plicata – Western red cedar (climax)- Alnus rubra – Red alder (early successional).
*Pacific Northwest Forests*Major Forest type (3 of 3)
– Eastside ponderosa pine forest type: (rain shadow mid-elevation; east side of the Cascade Mountains with rainfall and snow very similar to Flagstaff).- Pinus ponderosa – Ponderosa pine- Populus tremuloides (moist depressions) – Quaking aspen- Pseudotsuga menziesii var glauca – Rocky mountain douglas fir.