FRC Final

Prunus persica Batsch
Peach cultivar
Prunus persica nectarina
Nectarine cultivar
Prunus salicina
Plum cultivar
Prunus domestica
Plum cultivar
Top 3 Producing countries of Peach
China, Italy, USA
Top 3 Producing states of peach
California, South Carolina, Georgia
general characteristics of peach
-Blooms early low heat req.-many cultivars, varying chill req.-flower buds very cold hardy
site factors that contribute to PTSL(Peach Tree Short Life)
-low soil pH-Low nutrient levels-hardpans-high ring nematode population-poor weed control
where was the peach first cultivated from
Vitis vinifera L.
European wine grape
Where did grapes originate?
-Northeastern Turkey-Iran-Georgia-Armenia
Vitis labrusca L.
Juice grape
Vitis rotundifolia
muscadine grape
How does a muscadinia grape ripen?
ripens by individual berries
How do Euvitis grapes ripen
(bunch grapes) ripen by cluster
training system for grapes
High Cordon Trellis
-Trained-permanent wood
-Pruned-Previous season growth-bears the fruit
Root insect responsible for decimating European grape industry.

Grapes major diseases and pests
-Phylloxera-Pierce’s disease-Leafroll Virus-Botrytis rot-Powdery, Downy Mildew
What is Pierce’s disease caused by?
Xylella fastidiosa
Top world producers of strawberries
-United States-Spain-South Korea
Top 3 states that produce strawberries
Fragaria xananassa Duch.
Strawberry Genus species
Where do strawberries originate?
Strawberry FestivalTreasure
cultivars of strawberries
training system for strawberries
major diseases of strawberries
-Botrytis-Angular leaf spot-Anthracnose
major pest of strawberries
-spider mites-thrips-sting nematodes
Training system for peaches
Open-center training
Symptoms of PTSL
-Sudden spring collapse of trees that seemed healthy-Bark may have water soaked appearance-browning of cambium extending to but not below the soil line-surving root system produces suckers
2 theories on PTSL
-Carbohydrate partitioning theory-Hormone Theory
Hormone Theory
Elevated auxin levels can cause peach trees to enter dormancy too late in the fall or emerge from dormancy too early in the spring.
Factors that lead to elevated auxin lvls
-Stress wounds-pruning in fall-nematode feeding
Carbohydrate partitioning theory
-depleted carbohydrate levels in trees from nematode feeding render trees more susceptible to abiotic stresses such as cold temps.
Peach diseases and pests
-Peach scab-Bacterial spot-Brown rot flower blight-Leafbug, stinkbug-white peach scale-san jose scale-peach tree borer
Peach cultuvars
Plum varieties
Juglans regia
Where did walnuts originate?
Top 3 producers of walnuts
China, US, Iran
Top states to produce walnuts
California 99%
Pistacia vera
Origin of pistachio?
Western Asia, Asia minor
World producers of Pistchios?
-Iran -US-Syria
Pistachio production in US?
-Cali 98%-Arizona-Nevada
Planning and designs of pistachio
-Offset square-Rectangle square-Hexagonal
Pistachio cultivar used in Cali b/c it has a high yield
Physiological problems in Pistachio
-Blank nuts-Non Split Nuts
Pistachio-Blank nuts caused by.


-related to boron deficiency-embryo fails to grow leaving shell empty or blank
Pistachio- Non Split Nut caused by.

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-related to crop load and irrigation
Verticillium Wilt
Rapid dessication and death of one or more scaffolds or entire tree.
Advantages of dwarfing rootstocks
-Early return on investment-higher precocity w/ dwarfed rootstocks-More efficient use of orchard-lower per tree yield, higher per acre yield-less labor required-efficient use of pesticide
Benificial effects of rootstocks
-Insect/disease tolerance-Drought tolerance-Size control-Fruiting at earlier age/ higher precocity-Incr. fruit yield, quality, -Incr.

cold hardiness

Types of budding
-T-bud-Inverted T-bud-Chip bud-Whip Grafting-Bark Graft-Cleft Graft
Types of Hormones
Naturally occuring Auxin
What does Auxin do?
-Fruit thinning-Preharvest drop control-Incr. fruit set-Root sprout control
Synthetic Auxin
Synthetic GA’s
What does GA do?
-Incr. fruit size-Affect fruit size-Incr. fruit set-Delay fruit maturity-Induse seedlessness-Reduce fruit cracking
Synthetic Cytokinin
-Benzyladenine (BA)-Promalin
What do Cytokinins do?
-Incr. lateral branching-Affect fruit shape-Incr.

fruit set-Incr. seed germination

What does Ethylene do?
-Affects(+/-)flowering-early ripening-uniform ripening-fruit coloration-bloom delay-defoliation
Types of dormancy
Regulated by physiological factors inside the structure-Chilling exposure
Regulated by physiological factors outside the affected structure-Apical dominance-photoperiodic response
Regulated by environmental factors
stages of a double sygmoidal curve
-stage 1 -Cell division-stage 2 -Pit hardening-stage 3 -Cell enlargement
what does a double sygmoidal curve represent?
-Stone Fruit -Peaches, nectarine, plum
crop produced with fertilization so they end up seedless
The intentional removal of plant tissue to achieve specific Hort. goal
Manipulation of plant to achieve desired effects.
What type of training systems do we use?
-Central leader-Open center -Perpendicular V
Benefits of adjusting fruit load
-Incr. fruit size, quality, & earliness-reduced limb breakage-reduced alternate bearing-reduced plant stress & disease devel.
Macro Nutrients
-N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S-Nitrogen-Phosphorous-Potassium-Calcium-Magnesium-Sulfur
Micro Nutrients
-Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, B, Cl,-Iron-Manganese-Copper-Zinc-Boron-Chlorine
Mobile Nutrients
-N, P, K, Mg
What is the difference b/w mobile and immobile nutrients?
-mobile -Old leaves show symptoms first-immobile -new(young) leaves show symptoms first
Immobile nutrients
-Fe, Mn, Zn, Ca, B, Cu
Nitrogen deficiency symptoms
-Macro-mobile-yellowing of leaves-Low vigor, small leaves-reduced fruit yield-small fruit
Phosphorous deficiency symptoms
-Macro-mobile-dark green-reddish purple leaves-
Potassium deficiency symptoms
-Macro-mobile-yellowing of older leaves-leaves looked scorched
Magnesium deficiency symptoms
-macro-mobile-interveinal chlorosis -yellowing of older leaves between veins -veins stay green
Calcium deficiency symptoms
-Macro-immobile-reduced growth or death of growing tips-deformed young leaves-related to plant water status
Sulfur deficiency symptoms
-macro-immobile-yellowing of leaves-Low vigor, small leaves-reduced fruit yield-small fruit
Boron deficiency symptoms
-micro-immobile-poor fruit set-cracking and misshapen fruit
Iron deficiency symptoms
-micro-immobile-interveinal chlorosis-reduced leaf size
Zinc deficiency symptoms
-micro-immobile-interveinal chlorosis-little leaf-
Manganese deficiency symptoms
-micro-immobile-Inter. Chlorosis
Fertigation adv.


-adv. -very efficient/precise -freq. applications possible-disadv. -system must be calibrated
What is fertigation?
the application of fertilizers, soil amendments, or other water-soluble products through an irrigation system.

Overhead sprinkler adv./disadv.

-Good root coverage -Uniform -Used for freeze protection-disadv. -Not efficient -Wets foliage -expensive

Micro-irrigation adv./disadv.
-adv. -efficient use of water -inexpensive -adapted to fertigation-disadv. -limited root zone coverage -clogging/maintenance issues
The goal of irrigation scheduling
-To know when to irrigate,-how much water to apply to -satisfy plant water req. -conserve water -& doesn’t leach mobile nutrients
Moisture Balance Method
-measure inputs & outputs-need to know soil water holding capacity-need to know root zone
“kick the dirt” method
-requires experience-can use soil probe
Factors that affect Irrigation req.

-Crop species-Canopy size & shape-Leaf size & orientation -light absorption, reflection, evapo. rates-Plant density-Rooting depth
Crop Coefficient
relates the Theoretical Evapotranspiration(ETo) to the weather(humidity, etc.) in order to retrieve the Crop Evapotranspiration (ETc)
Active Freeze protection
-Wind displacement-Irrigation -Ice formation yields heat of fusion
Passive Freeze protection
-Site selection -elevation -lake effects -soil type-Orchard floor management
deciding whether or not to use overhead irrigation
-Know the stage of crop development & how cold affects that stage-rely on on-site weather data not the weather station-
-Malus domestica Borkh-Pome fruit-edible tissue is hypanthium-originated in eastern Turkey/ SW Russia
Top 3 world producers of Apples
1 China2 USA3 Turkey
Top 3 US producers of Apples
1 Washington2 New York3 Michigan
factors affecting fruit size
Cultural- -Thinning, Pruning, Training, Soil ManagementGenetic- -Rootstock, CultivarEnvironmental- -Light, Temp., Moisture
Major factors affecting fruit size
Training system for apples
Central Leader
Malus domestica Borkh
Prunus persica (L.) Batsch
Prunus persica (L.

) Batsch

Prunus persica var. nectarina
Prunus persica var. nectarina
Prunus salicina, P. domestica
Prunus salicina, P. domestica
Blueberry Rabbiteye
Vaccinium virgatum
Vaccinium virgatum
Blueberry Rabbiteye
Blueberry Highbush
Vaccinium corymbosum
Vaccinium corymbosum
Blueberry Highbush
Blueberry Lowbush
Vaccinium angustifolium, V.


Vaccinium angustifolium, V. myrtiloides
Blueberry Lowbush
Blueberry Southern Highbush
Vaccinium corymbosum x, V. darrowix, V.


Vaccinium corymbosum x, V. darrowix, V. virgatum
Blueberry Southern Highbush
Fragaria x ananassa Duch.

Fragaria x ananassa Duch.
Juglans regia
Juglans regia
Pistacia vera
Pistacia vera
Rubus idaeus, R. occidentallis
Rubus idaeus, R.


Pyrus communis
European Pear
European Pear
Pyrus communis
asian Pear
Pyrus pyrifolia, P. serotina
Pyrus pyrifolia, P. serotina
asian pear
Diospyros kaki, D. virginiana
Diospyros kaki, D. virginiana
the 4 types of Blueberries
HighbushRabbiteyeLowbushSouthern Highbush
top 3 world producers of Peach
1 China2 Italy3 USA
top 3 US producers of peach
1 California2 South Carol.3 Georgia
top 3 world producers of pear
1 China2 Italy3 USA
top 3 US producers of pear
1 Washington2 California3 Oregon